Responsive Element
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2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Sudheendra Hebbar Subramanyam ◽  
Klaus Tenbrock

Abstract The cAMP responsive element modulator (CREM) is a transcriptional regulator of different effector cytokines in CD4+ T cells including IL-2, IL-17, IL-21 but also IL-4 and IL-13 and thus an important determinant of central T helper cell functions. Our review gives an overview over the regulation of CREM in T cells and the pleiotropic effects of CREM on CD4+ T cells in health and autoimmune diseases with a particular focus on systemic lupus erythematosus.

2021 ◽  
JaeHun Cheong ◽  
Jeong A Jang ◽  
Bok Kyung Ku

Abstract I. Background: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious viral pathogen in cloven-hoofed animal including cattle and pig, yet progress in the molecular mechanisms of FMDV genome replication is notably lagging behind that for many RNA viruses. A positive single stranded RNA of FMDV encodes a single long open reading frame flanked by a long 5’-untranslated region (5’UTR) and a short 3’-UTR. The cis-responsive element (CRE) of 5’UTR is critical for FMDV genome replication. II. Methods and Results: Here, we described that poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) is revealed as a CRE-binding cellular factor. The RNA immunoprecipitation experiment confirmed that the FMDV CRE interacts with PCBP2 protein. CRE derived from FMDV infection in pig bound stronger to PCBP2 protein of pig than cattle PCBP2, showing host specific RNA-protein interaction. In addition, PCBP2 interacts with FMDV 3B protein together with CRE. The interaction of PCBP and 3B protein with CRE also showed host-specific manners. III. Conclusions: These data suggest that cellular PCBP2 may serve as a host cellular factor of FMDV to facilitate viral replication through interaction with the viral genome and contribute to determine host susceptibility of FMDV variants. The inter-molecular interaction between cellular PCBP2 and FMDV 3B and CRE provides perspectives for antiviral strategy.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254111
Zhaoguo Li ◽  
Zhen Liu ◽  
Yangyang Wei ◽  
Yuling Liu ◽  
Linxue Xing ◽  

The enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) catalyzes the myo-inositol into glucuronic acid. In this study, 6 MIOX genes were identified from all of the three diploid cotton species (Gossypium arboretum, Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium raimondii) and Gossypioides kirkii, 12 MIOX genes were identified from two domesticated tetraploid cottons Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, and 11 MIOX genes were identified from three wild tetraploid cottons Gossypium tomentosum, Gossypium mustelinum and Gossypium darwinii. The number of MIOX genes in tetraploid cotton genome is roughly twice that of diploid cotton genome. Members of MIOX family were classified into six groups based on the phylogenetic analysis. Integrated analysis of collinearity events and chromosome locations suggested that both whole genome duplication and segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of MIOX genes during cotton evolution. The ratios of non-synonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates revealed that purifying selection was the main force driving the evolution of MIOX genes. Numerous cis-acting elements related to light responsive element, defense and stress responsive element were identified in the promoter of the MIOX genes. Expression analyses of MIOX genes based on RNA-seq data and quantitative real time PCR showed that MIOX genes within the same group shared similar expression patterns with each other. All of these results provide the foundation for further study of the biological functions of MIOX genes in cotton environmental adaptability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Chao Dong ◽  
Yue Xi ◽  
Xinlu Chen ◽  
Zong-Ming Cheng

Abstract Background Drought is a common phenomenon worldwide. It is also one of the main abiotic factors that affect the growth and quality of strawberry. The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) members that belong to the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) superfamily are unique transcription factors in plants that play important roles in the abiotic stress response. Results Here, a total of 119 AP2/EREBP genes were identified in Fragaria vesca, and the AP2/EREBP superfamily was divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, DREB, and soloist subfamilies, containing 18, 7, 61, 32, and one member(s), respectively. The DREB subfamily was further divided into six subgroups (A-1 to A-6) based on phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal location, and synteny analysis were conducted to comprehensively investigate the characteristics of FvDREBs. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed distinctive expression patterns among the FvDREB genes in strawberry plants exposed to drought stress. The expression of FvDREB6 of the A-2 subgroup was down-regulated in old leaves and up-regulated in young leaves in response to drought. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis found that FvDREB8 from the A-2 subgroup had the highest expression level under drought stress. Together, analyses with the expression pattern, phylogenetic relationship, motif, and promoter suggest that FvDREB18 may play a critical role in the regulation of FvDREB1 and FvDREB2 expression. Conclusions Our findings provide new insights into the characteristics and potential functions of FvDREBs. These FvDREB genes should be further studied as they appear to be excellent candidates for drought tolerance improvement of strawberry.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11647
Nida Mushtaq ◽  
Faiza Munir ◽  
Alvina Gul ◽  
Rabia Amir ◽  
Rehan Zafar Paracha

Background The dehydration responsive element-binding (DREB) gene family plays a crucial role as transcription regulators and enhances plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. Although the DREB gene family has been identified and characterized in many plants, knowledge about it in Solanum tuberosum (Potato) is limited. Results In the present study, StDREB gene family was comprehensively analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. We identified 66 StDREB genes through genome wide screening of the Potato genome based on the AP2 domain architecture and amino acid conservation analysis (Valine at position 14th). Phylogenetic analysis divided them into six distinct subgroups (A1–A6). The categorization of StDREB genes into six subgroups was further supported by gene structure and conserved motif analysis. Potato DREB genes were found to be distributed unevenly across 12 chromosomes. Gene duplication proved that StDREB genes experienced tandem and segmental duplication events which led to the expansion of the gene family. The Ka/Ks ratios of the orthologous pairs also demonstrated the StDREB genes were under strong purification selection in the course of evolution. Interspecies synteny analysis revealed 45 and 36 StDREB genes were orthologous to Arabidopsis and Solanum lycopersicum, respectively. Moreover, subcellular localization indicated that StDREB genes were predominantly located within the nucleus and the StDREB family’s major function was DNA binding according to gene ontology (GO) annotation. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive and systematic understanding of precise molecular mechanism and functional characterization of StDREB genes in abiotic stress responses and will lead to improvement in Solanum tuberosum.

2021 ◽  
Priya Issuree ◽  
Athmane Teghanemt ◽  
Priyanjali Pulipati ◽  
Kenneth Day ◽  
Matt Yorek ◽  

Abstract The potential for early thymic developmental events to program epigenetic states that influence adult T cell physiology remains an important question in health. Herein using the Cd4 locus as a paradigm for early developmental programming, we demonstrate that DNA demethylation during thymic development is critical for the licensing of a novel stimulus-responsive element that serves to maintain CD4 gene expression in effector T cells. We document the importance of maintaining high CD4 expression during parasitic infection and show that by driving transcription, this stimulus-responsive element allows for the maintenance of H3K4me3 levels during T cell replication, which is critical for repelling de novo DNA methylation at the Cd4 promoter. A failure to undergo epigenetic programming during development leads to gene silencing during effector T cell replication, thus providing evidence that early development can program stimulus-responsive elements to propagate a stable epigenetic state in effector T cells, with important biological consequences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nicholas A. Arce ◽  
Wenpeng Cao ◽  
Alexander K. Brown ◽  
Emily R. Legan ◽  
Moriah S. Wilson ◽  

AbstractVon Willebrand factor (VWF) activates in response to shear flow to initiate hemostasis, while aberrant activation could lead to thrombosis. Above a critical shear force, the A1 domain of VWF becomes activated and captures platelets via the GPIb-IX complex. Here we show that the shear-responsive element controlling VWF activation resides in the discontinuous autoinhibitory module (AIM) flanking A1. Application of tensile force in a single-molecule setting induces cooperative unfolding of the AIM to expose A1. The AIM-unfolding force is lowered by truncating either N- or C-terminal AIM region, type 2B VWD mutations, or binding of a ristocetin-mimicking monoclonal antibody, all of which could activate A1. Furthermore, the AIM is mechanically stabilized by the nanobody that comprises caplacizumab, the only FDA-approved anti-thrombotic drug to-date that targets VWF. Thus, the AIM is a mechano-regulator of VWF activity. Its conformational dynamics may define the extent of VWF autoinhibition and subsequent activation under force.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 756
Fumiyuki Soma ◽  
Fuminori Takahashi ◽  
Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki ◽  
Kazuo Shinozaki

Drought is a severe and complex abiotic stress that negatively affects plant growth and crop yields. Numerous genes with various functions are induced in response to drought stress to acquire drought stress tolerance. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates mainly in the leaves in response to drought stress and then activates subclass III SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s), which are key phosphoregulators of ABA signaling. ABA mediates a wide variety of gene expression processes through stress-responsive transcription factors, including ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEINS (AREBs)/ABRE-BINDING FACTORS (ABFs) and several other transcription factors. Seed plants have another type of SnRK2s, ABA-unresponsive subclass I SnRK2s, that mediates the stability of gene expression through the mRNA decay pathway and plant growth under drought stress in an ABA-independent manner. Recent research has elucidated the upstream regulators of SnRK2s, RAF-like protein kinases, involved in early responses to drought stress. ABA-independent transcriptional regulatory systems and ABA-responsive regulation function in drought-responsive gene expression. DEHYDRATION RESPONSIVE ELEMENT (DRE) is an important cis-acting element in ABA-independent transcription, whereas ABA-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT (ABRE) cis-acting element functions in ABA-responsive transcription. In this review article, we summarize recent advances in research on cellular and molecular drought stress responses and focus on phosphorylation signaling and transcription networks in Arabidopsis and crops. We also highlight gene networks of transcriptional regulation through two major regulatory pathways, ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways, that ABA-responsive subclass III SnRK2s and ABA-unresponsive subclass I SnRK2s mediate, respectively. We also discuss crosstalk in these regulatory systems under drought stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
R. Scholz ◽  
M. Langhansl ◽  
M. Hemmerich ◽  
J. Meyer ◽  
C. Zollfrank ◽  

AbstractRenewable and environmentally responsive materials are an energy- and resource-efficient approach in terms of civil engineering applications, e.g. as so-called smart building skins. To evaluate the influence of different environmental stimuli, like humidity or solar radiation, on the long-term actuation behavior and mechanical robustness of these materials, it is necessary to precisely characterize the magnitude and range of stimuli that trigger reactions and the resulting kinetics of a material, respectively, with suitable testing equipment and techniques. The overall aim is to correlate actuation potential and mechanical properties with process- or application-oriented parameters in terms of demand-oriented stimuli-responsive element production. In this study, the impact of solar radiation as environmental trigger on the cellulose-based humidity-sensing material Cottonid, which is a promising candidate for adaptive and autonomously moving elements, was investigated. For simulating solar radiation in the lab, specimens were exposed to short-wavelength blue light as well as a standardized artificial solar irradiation (CIE Solar ID65) in long-term aging experiments. Photodegradation behavior was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements to assess changes in Cottonid’s chemical composition. Subsequently, changes in micromechanical properties on the respective specimens’ surface were investigated with roughness measurements and ultra-micro-hardness tests to characterize variations in stiffness distribution in comparison to the initial condition. Also, thermal effects during long-term aging were considered and contrasted to pure radiative effects. In addition, to investigate the influence of process-related parameters on Cottonid’s humidity-driven deformation behavior, actuation tests were performed in an alternating climate chamber using a customized specimen holder, instrumented with digital image correlation (DIC). DIC was used for precise actuation strain measurements to comparatively evaluate different influences on the material’s sorption behavior. The infrared absorbance spectra of different aging states of irradiated Cottonid indicate oxidative stress on the surface compared to unaged samples. These findings differ under pure thermal loads. EPR spectra could corroborate these findings as radicals were detected, which were attributed to oxidation processes. Instrumented actuation experiments revealed the influence of processing-related parameters on the sorption behavior of the tested and structurally optimized Cottonid variant. Experimental data supports the definition of an optimal process window for stimuli-responsive element production. Based on these results, tailor-made functional materials shall be generated in the future where stimuli-responsiveness can be adjusted through the manufacturing process.

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