phase transmission
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riccardo castagna ◽  
Andrea Di Donato ◽  
Giuseppe Strangi ◽  
Daniele Eugenio Lucchetta

Abstract We recorded a permanent phase transmission grating on a thin film made by using a recently developed holographic photomobile mixture. The recorded grating pitch falls in the visible range and can be optically manipulated by using an external coherent or incoherent low power light source. When the external light source illuminates the grating the entire structure bends and, as a consequence, the optical properties of the grating change. This peculiarity makes it possible to use the recorded periodic structure as an all-optically controlled free standing thin colour selector or light switch depending on the source used to illuminate the grating itself. Additionally, it could open up new possibilities for stretchable and reconfigurable holograms controlled by light as well as thin devices for optically reconfigurable dynamic communications and displays.

2021 ◽  
Tzu-Hsien Shen ◽  
Liam Spillane ◽  
Jiayu Peng ◽  
Yang Shao-Horn ◽  
Vasiliki Tileli

AbstractThe surface wettability of catalysts is typically controlled via surface treatments that promote catalytic performance. Here we report on potential-regulated hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity at cobalt-based oxide interfaces with an alkaline solution. The switchable wetting of single particles, directly related to their activity and stability towards the oxygen evolution reaction, was revealed by electrochemical liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the movement of the liquid in real time revealed distinctive wettability behaviour associated with specific potential ranges. At low potentials, an overall reduction of the hydrophobicity of the oxides was probed. Upon reversible reconstruction towards the surface oxyhydroxide phase, electrowetting was found to cause a change in the interfacial capacitance. At high potentials, the evolution of molecular oxygen, confirmed by operando electron energy-loss spectroscopy, was accompanied by a globally thinner liquid layer. This work directly links the physical wetting with the chemical oxygen evolution reaction of single particles, providing fundamental insights into solid–liquid interfacial interactions of oxygen-evolving oxides.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8400
Chunguang Suo ◽  
Jiawen Zhao ◽  
Wenbin Zhang ◽  
Peng Li ◽  
Rujin Huang ◽  

The tracking and positioning of transmission lines is a key element for UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) to achieve autonomous inspection of transmission lines. Current methods are vulnerable to weather and environmental factors, have high costs, and have difficulties in data processing. Therefore, this paper proposes a transmission line tracking and localization method based on the electric field sensor array, which calculates the current UAV’s heading angle deflection angle, the distance between the transmission line and the UAV, and the elevation angle, providing a new idea to solve the problem of UAV inspection of transmission lines. At the same time, the electric field distribution of different arrangements of three-phase transmission lines was analyzed using COMSOL to determine the flight area of the UAV. By comparing the electric field distribution of the UAV flight area and single-phase transmission lines, it was verified that the current method is also applicable in the three-phase transmission line scenario, and it was further verified that the sensor array used can sense the change of the UAV position in the flight area, indicating that the electric field sensor array can realize the transmission line tracking and localization of transmission lines. The experimental results showed that, in the three-phase transmission line scenario, when the sensor array moves along the transmission straight wire, the maximum absolute error of the heading angle deflection angle calculated according to this method was 8.2°, the maximum absolute error of the distance between the array and the transmission line was 19.3 cm, and the maximum absolute error of the elevation angle was 11.37°; the error was within a reasonable range and can be used for the UAV to realize autonomous inspection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (S2) ◽  
pp. 95-96
Mads S. Larsen ◽  
Murat N. Yesibolati ◽  
Kristian S. Mølhave

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