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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 873-877
Dongqian Xie ◽  
Zhicheng Gao ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  
Defeng Wang

Metformin is shown to have hypoglycemic effects. However, the relationship between metformin’s intervention in FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated insulin resistance (IR) and insulin β-cell apoptosis under high-glucose condition remains unclear. Our study intends to assess their relationship. Human pancreatic β-cells were treated with metformin and cell proliferation and IR were detected by MTT assay along with detection of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by RT-PCR, cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Metformin inhibited β cell proliferation which was mediated by FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner as well as induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In addition, metformin inhibited β-catenin signaling activation and decreased the expression of c-myc, Dvl-2, survivin, Dvl-3, GSK-3β (p-ser9) and promoted GSK-3 (p-tyr216) and Axin-2 expression. In conclusion, metformin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes FFA to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby mediating pancreatic β-cells behaviors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 273-278
Daqing Jiang ◽  
Xianxin Xie ◽  
Cong Wang ◽  
Weijie Li ◽  
Jianjun He

Our study intends to assess the relationship between exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-exo) and breast cancer. BMSC-exo were isolated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. After transfection of BMSCs with miR-204 inhibitor, breast cancer cells were incubated with BMSC-exo followed by analysis of cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay, cell apoptosis by flow cytometry, and expression of apoptosis-related protein and NF-κB signaling by western blot. The co-culture of BMSC-exo with breast cancer cells enhanced miR-204 transcription, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Further, BMSC-exo accelerated apoptosis as demonstrated by the increased level of Bax and casepase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, as well as reduced NF-κB signaling activity. But knockdown of miR-204 abolished the effect of BMSC-exo on apoptosis and proliferation with NF-κB signaling activation. In conclusion, miR-204 from BMSC-exo restrains growth of breast cancer cell and might be a novel target for treating breast cancer.

Life Sciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 291 ◽  
pp. 120307
Phung Nguyen ◽  
Phuong Doan ◽  
Akshaya Murugesan ◽  
Thiyagarajan Ramesh ◽  
Tatu Rimpilainen ◽  

Yixuan Qiu ◽  
Jiaming Yu ◽  
Xueying Ji ◽  
Huiyuan Yu ◽  
Mengjuan Xue ◽  

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 249
Mengqi Dong ◽  
Yuanyuan Li ◽  
Min Zhu ◽  
Jinbo Li ◽  
Zhanfen Qin

Although tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has been well proven to disturb TH signaling in both in vitro and in vivo assays, it is still unclear whether TBBPA can affect brain development due to TH signaling disruption. Here, we employed the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay (TIXMA) and the spontaneous metamorphosis assay to address this issue. In the TIXMA, 5–500 nmol/L TBBPA affected T3-induced TH-response gene expression and T3-induced brain development (brain morphological changes, cell proliferation, and neurodifferentiation) at premetamorphic stages in a complicated biphasic concentration-response manner. Notably, 500 nmol/L TBBPA treatment alone exerted a stimulatory effect on tadpole growth and brain development at these stages, in parallel with a lack of TH signaling activation, suggesting the involvement of other signaling pathways. As expected, at the metamorphic climax, we observed inhibitory effects of 50–500 nmol/L TBBPA on metamorphic development and brain development, which was in agreement with the antagonistic effects of higher concentrations on T3-induced brain development at premetamorphic stages. Taken together, all results demonstrate that TBBPA can disturb TH signaling and subsequently interfere with TH-dependent brain development in Xenopus; meanwhile, other signaling pathways besides TH signaling could be involved in this process. Our study improves the understanding of the effects of TBBPA on vertebrate brain development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Hongxia Zhang ◽  
Robert Ostrowski ◽  
Dengzhi Jiang ◽  
Qing Zhao ◽  
Yidan Liang ◽  

Iron metabolism disturbances play an important role in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and hepcidin largely influences iron metabolism. Importantly, iron metabolism may be associated with ferroptosis, recently a nonapoptotic iron-dependent form of cell death that may have a great impact on brain injury after SAH. We investigated hepcidin on iron metabolism and ferroptosis involving divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin-1 (FPN1) in a rat model of SAH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the endovascular perforation to induce SAH, and treated with heparin (inhibitor of hepcidin), or oncostatin M (OSM, inducer of hepcidin), or ebselen (inhibitor of DMT1) by intracerebroventricular injections. Hepcidin, DMT1, FPN1 and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence. Iron metabolism was detected through Perl’s iron staining and iron content assay. Ferroptosis, the ROS production, lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated by monitoring methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) activity, and transmission electron microscopy. Neurological deficit scores, Evans blue staining and brain water content were also determined to detect EBI 72 h after SAH. Our results showed that inhibition of DMT1 by ebselen could suppress iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation, and thereby alleviate ferroptosis and EBI in SAH rats. Heparin downregulated the expression of hepcidin and DMT1, increased FPN1, and exerted protective effects that were equivalent to those of ebselen on ferroptosis and EBI. In addition, OSM increased the expression of hepcidin and DMT1, decreased FPN1, and aggravated ferroptosis and EBI, while the effect on ferroptosis was reversed by ebselen. Therefore, the study revealed that hepcidin could regulate iron metabolism and contribute to ferroptosis via DMT1 signaling activation in rats with EBI after SAH.

2021 ◽  
Annalisa Sforza ◽  
Vera Vigorelli ◽  
Erica Rurali ◽  
Elisa Gambini ◽  
Martina Arici ◽  

Abstract Background: Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have shown to reduce mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the impairment in number and function of vasculotrophic circulating CD34+ hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in T2D has been reported to increase cardiovascular (CV) risk, we hypothesized that one of the mechanisms whereby GLP-1 RAs exert CV protective effects may be related to the ability to improve CD34+ HSPC function.Methods: In cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ HSPC, the expression of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mRNA, receptor protein and intracellular signaling was evaluated by RT-qPCR and by Western Blot respectively. CD34+ HSPCs were exposed to high glucose (HG) condition and GLP-1RA liraglutide (LIRA) was added before as well as after functional impairment. Proliferation, CXCR4/SDF-1α axis activity and intracellular ROS production of CD34+ HSPC were evaluated. Results: CD34+ HSPCs express GLP-1R at transcriptional and protein level. LIRA treatment prevented and rescued HSPC proliferation and CXCR4/SDF-1α axis activity from HG-induced impairment. LIRA stimulation promoted intracellular cAMP accumulation as well as ERK1/2 and AKT signaling activation. The selective GLP-1R antagonist exendin (9-39) abrogated LIRA-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation along with the related protective effects. Conclusion: We provided the first evidence that CD34+ HSPC express GLP-1R and that LIRA can favorably impact on cell dysfunction due to HG exposure. These findings open new perspectives on the favorable CV effects of GLP-1 RAs in T2DM patients.

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