carica papaya seed
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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 80
Saparuddin Latu ◽  
Aisyah Nur Sapriati ◽  
Tamzil Azizi Musdar ◽  
Hilmiati Wahid

Pemanfaatan kosmetik  tradisional sebagai upaya pemeliharaan kecantikan  berupa kosmetik tradisional  oleh masyarakat terus meningkat. Tidak hanya racikan sendiri, produk kosmetik  tradisional saat inipun telah banyak beredar. Biji pepaya merupakan limbah dari pepaya yang tidak digunakan oleh masyarakat sehingga perlu diteliti kemanfaatannya dengan penghambatan terhadap enzim tyrosinase. Biji papaya (Carica papaya seed) mengandung senyawa flavonoid yaitu kaempferol dan quercetin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hasil penghambatan enzim tyrosinase dar biji papaya yang akan membuat kulit menjadi lebih putih. Pengujian ini menggunakan tiga jenis ekstrak biji pepaya dengan variasi cairan penyari (methanol, n-Heksane, air) dan dilakukan pengujian terhadap penghambatan enzim tyrosinase. Dipoeroleh penghambatan IC50 177 ppm. Dari hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan maka disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak biji papaya (Carica papaya) dengan perbedaan cairan penyari memiliki efektivitas sebagai krim pemutih. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (4) ◽  
pp. 487-497
Edinadose Orose ◽  
Okechukwu Kenneth Wokeh ◽  
Edafe Odioko

This study was conducted to evaluate the histological changes of 17αmethyl-testosterone (MT), wet testes of bull (Bos indicus), boar (Sus domesticus), bull/mud catfish testes (B. indicus/C. gariepinus) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) seed powder-based diet on the Nile tilapia fry in an indoor experimental pond. Histological changes and efficacies in producing monosex males were determined after four months. Fifty-five fry were assigned randomly to three experimental ponds in triplicates. Five experimental feeds composed of soya-bean, fish meal, wheat bran, cassava flour were formulated by adding 0.06g of 17α- methyl-testosterone, 17.47g of bull wet testes, 25.59g of boar wet testes, 20.48g of bull/catfish and 20g of pawpaw seed powder per kg of feed to group 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively. Obtained results from the morphological examination revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in phenotypic males of the Nile tilapia fry fed with the experimental diets. The highest indistinct percentage was recorded in the 17αmethyl-testosterone-treated diet while the lowest was recorded in diets 3 and 4 with no significant differences. All the groups showed histopathological differences in the livers, gills, and muscles. However, the liver histology of groups 1 and 5 showed central vessels that are mildly congested with abundant glycogen vacuolation and somewhat fat infiltration, while the histology of the muscles of group 5 showed pathological lesions including moderate to severe necrosis. These alterations can be considered an indication of the performance and health of fish in monosex culture medium indicating effects of plant extract and MT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 7787-7795

Natural coagulants are proven to be a good alternative to conventional coagulants with the removal of various pollutants and are environmentally friendly. Despite its advantages, the least studies were carried out on local agro-wastes such as papaya seeds as natural coagulants concerning different operational factors. The study analyzes the main and interactions effect between the coagulant dosage, initial turbidity, and pH on deshelled Carica papaya seeds for turbid water treatment. A 2-level factorial design was used to investigate the main and interaction effects of the main operational factors, viz. coagulant dosage (50-200 mg/L), pH (3-7), and initial turbidity (100-500 NTU) on the turbidity removal of the synthetic turbid water. Based on individual performance, the results suggested that initial turbidity and pH are the most significant factors among the investigated operational factors. In combination, all interactions are significant, but the interaction between initial turbidity and pH is most significant, with 97.2% turbidity removal. Upon application of Carica papaya seed as a natural coagulant in water and wastewater treatment, these operating variables and their interactions are best to be considered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 009-016
Mmasinachi Mary Nweke ◽  
Franklin O. Chukwuma ◽  
Benson O. Evbuomwan ◽  
Akuma Oji

The objective of this research was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process for abattoir wastewater by utilizing a bio-coagulant derived from Carica Papaya seed (CPS). The bio-coagulant (CPC) was extracted from the Carica Papaya seed using a 2M NaCl solution, and the coagulation-flocculation process was carried out using a bench scale jar test. Applying design expert (, 23 full factorials with 5 center points, the effects of three factors: coagulant dosage (X1), pH of the wastewater (X2), and temperature (X3) on turbidity reduction efficiency were examined. Applying ANOVA, it was discovered that a linear model best characterizes the process, with a significant p-value of 0.0015, showing that the model is significant. Additionally, the temperature is a significant component in the model, with a p-value of 0.02 indicating that the temperature is statistically significant. A turbidity reduction efficiency of 90.02 % was attained at the optimum conditions of 0.75g/L of CPC, pH of 6, and temperature of 308 K.

M. A. Kanadi ◽  
R. Yila ◽  
M. P. Ibrahim ◽  
A. I. Yaradua ◽  
A. Nasir

Aim: To investigate the proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of matured Carica papaya seed. Study Design: Proximate composition was determined on Carica papaya seed powder while extracts for phytochemical analysis were obtained, in turn using five different solvents of varying polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The study was carried out between March- April, 2019. Results: The proximate composition of matured Carica papaya seed showed it contained crude fat (27.72%), carbohydrate (23.34%), crude fibre (21.25%), ash (10.25%), crude protein (9.65%) and moisture (7.34%). Qualitative phytochemical screening of Carica papaya seed extracts detected major phytochemicals except anthraquinones and quantitative analyses of these phytochemicals in all the five extracts showed that flavonoids was the most abundant phytochemical with 38.68%, 35.85%, 36.76%, 34.04% and 23.50% for methanol, aqueous, chloroform, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions respectively while tannins was the least abundant phytochemical with 0.03% for methanol extract, 0.04% for n-hexane extract, 0.09% for aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts, and 0.14% for the chloroform extract. Conclusion: Seeds of matured Carica papaya contain major nutrients that may be useful in nutrition. The presence of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins in considerable quantities explained the medicinal activity of the plant material as encountered in its therapeutic uses.

. Liana ◽  
I. Nyoman Ehrich Lister ◽  
Edy Fachrial ◽  
. Adrian

Aims: Rifampicin one of the most commonly used front-line drugs in antituberculosis therapy, has been known to be hepatotoxic. The oxidative stress that is formed in the mitochondria due to rifampicin and isoniazid causes an imbalance in lipid metabolism. This study aims to determine the effect of lowering total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels and increasing HDL levels of papaya seed ethanol extract in rats induced by rifampin and isoniazid. Study design: This study is experimental study. Methodology: This study was divided into 9 groups including normal group, negative group 1, 2, 3, positive 1, 2, treatment group I (EECP 100 mg/kgbw), treatment group II (EECP 300 mg/kgbw), and treatment group III (EECP 500 mg/kgbw). Rifampicin (50 mg/kgbw), isoniazid (50 mg/kgbw), and EECP were given 28 days, on day 29 rats were dissected and blood was taken and the total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL levels were measured. Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract of papaya seeds at a dose of 100 mg / kgbb, 300 mg / kgbb, and 500 mg / kgbw could reduce levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and increase HDL levels. The dose of 500 mg / kgbw was not statistically significant (P> 0.05) with the normal group. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Carica papaya has a potential effect of preventing the destruction of lipid metabolism effect by reducing the LDL, Trygliseride, Cholesterol Total, and increasing the level of HDL.

M. A. Kanadi ◽  
A. J. Alhassan ◽  
A. I. Yaradua ◽  
A. Nasir ◽  
A. M. Wudil

Aim: To investigate the effect of the chromatographic fractions of Carica papaya seed on KBrO3 –induced reduction in the activities of renal brush border membrane (BBM) marker enzymes and the changes in activities of some enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the kidney of rats. Study Design: twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, five rats per group; normal control, KBrO3 control, papaya fraction control and KBrO3 group administered with 126mg/kg body weight of the most active fraction of partially purified methanol extract of C. papaya for 48 hours. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. Methodology: The activities of renal BBM marker enzymes: γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, maltase and leucine aminopeptidase were assayed in homogenates of renal cortex and medulla, and in brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) isolated from cortex using standard methods. Furthermore, activities of the following enzymes representing different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism were determined in renal homogenates: hexokinase (HK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6P), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME). Results: KBrO3 administration significantly (P<0.05) decreases the activities of all the BBM marker enzymes in renal homogenates and BBMV. It also decreases the activities of MDH, G6P, FBP and G6PD, and significantly increases (P<0.05) that of HK, LDH and ME in renal homogenates however co-administration of most active fraction of C. papaya  seed prevented all the KBrO3 -induced changes in these biochemical parameters. Conclusion: Chromatographic fractions of C. papaya seed extract possesses potent phytochemicals that could prevent KBrO3 –induced reduction in activities of renal BBM marker enzymes and the changes in enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism studied and therefore could be analyzed further to isolate the bioactive compounds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 5715
Amir Hariz Amran ◽  
Nur Syamimi Zaidi ◽  
Achmad Syafiuddin ◽  
Loh Zhang Zhan ◽  
Muhammad Burhanuddin Bahrodin ◽  

It is important to develop renewable bio-coagulants to treat turbid water and efficient use of these bio-coagulants requires process optimization to achieve robustness. This study was conducted to optimize the coagulation process using bio-coagulant of deshelled Carica papaya seeds by employing response surface methodology (RSM). This bio-coagulant was extracted by a chemical-free solvent. The experiments were conducted using the Central Composite Design (CCD). Initially, the functional groups and protein content of the bio-coagulant were analyzed. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis showed that the bio-coagulant contained OH, C=O and C-O functional groups, which enabled the protein to become polyelectrolyte. The highest efficiency of the bio-coagulant was obtained at dosage of 196 mg/L, pH 4.0 and initial turbidity of 500 NTU. At the optimum conditions, the bio-coagulant achieved 88% turbidity removal with a corresponding 83% coagulation activity. These findings suggested that the deshelled Carica papaya seeds have potential as a promising bio-coagulant in treating the polluted water.

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