the antarctic
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Author(s):  
César Marina-Montes ◽  
Luis V. Pérez-Arribas ◽  
Jesús Anzano ◽  
Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo ◽  
Julene Aramendia ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 61 ◽  
pp. 100922
Author(s):  
Christopher Riccardi ◽  
Caterina D'Angelo ◽  
Marzia Calvanese ◽  
Annarita Ricciardelli ◽  
Maria Luisa Tutino ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Volodymyr Tytar

The Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) is regarded a Southern Hemisphere endemic found throughout the Southern Hemisphere, generally south of 60°S in austral summer. Here they have been routinely observed in highest densities adjacent to and inside the sea ice edge, and where they feed predominantly on krill. Detecting abundance trends regarding this species by employing visual monitoring is problematic. Partly this is because the whales are frequently sighted within sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. In this respect species-habitat models are increasingly recognized as valuable tools to predict the probability of cetacean presence, relative abundance or density throughout an area of interest and to gain insight into the ecological processes affecting these patterns. The objective of this study was to provide this background information for the above research needs and in a broader context use species distribution models (SDMs) to establish a current habitat suitability description for the species and to identify the main environmental covariates related to its distribution. We used filtered 464 occurrences to generate the SDMs. We selected eight predictor variables with reduced collinearity for constructing the models: mean annuals of the surface temperature (ºC), salinity (PSS), current velocity (m/s), sea ice concentration (fraction, %), chlorophyll-a concentration (mg/m³), primary productivity (g/m3/day), cloud cover (%), and bathymetry (m). Six modeling algorithms were test and the Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) model demonstrated the best preformance. Based on variable importance, those that best explained the environmental requirements of the species, were: sea ice concentration, chlorophyll-a concentration and topography of the sea floor (bathymetry), explaining in sum around 62% of the variance. Using the BART model, habitat preferences have been interpreted from patterns in partial dependence plots. Areas where the AMW have particularly high likelihood of occurrence are East Antarctica, NE of the Weddell Sea, areas around the northern tip of the Antarctica Peninsula, areas bordering the Scotia–Weddell Confluence. Given the association of AMWs with sea ice the pagophilic character of their biology makes them particularly vulnerable to climate change and a perfect biological indicator for tracking these changes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 391
Author(s):  
Derui Xu ◽  
Xueyuan Tang ◽  
Shuhu Yang ◽  
Yun Zhang ◽  
Lijuan Wang ◽  
...  

Due to rapid global warming, the relationship between the mass loss of the Antarctic ice sheet and rising sea levels are attracting widespread attention. The Lambert–Amery glacial system is the largest drainage system in East Antarctica, and its mass balance has an important influence on the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. In this paper, the recent ice flux in the Lambert Glacier of the Lambert–Amery system was systematically analyzed based on recently updated remote sensing data. According to Landsat-8 ice velocity data from 2018 to April 2019 and the updated Bedmachine v2 ice thickness dataset in 2021, the contribution of ice flux approximately 140 km downstream from Dome A in the Lambert Glacier area to downstream from the glacier is 8.5 ± 1.9, and the ice flux in the middle of the convergence region is 18.9 ± 2.9. The ice mass input into the Amery ice shelf through the grounding line of the whole glacier is 19.9 ± 1.3. The ice flux output from the mainstream area of the grounding line is 19.3 ± 1.0. Using the annual SMB data of the regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO v2.3) as the quality input, the mass balance of the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Lambert Glacier was analyzed. The results show that recent positive accumulation appears in the middle region of the glacier (about 74–78°S, 67–85°E) and the net accumulation of the whole glacier is 2.4 ± 3.5. Although the mass balance of the Lambert Glacier continues to show a positive accumulation, and the positive value in the region is decreasing compared with values obtained in early 2000.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tailisi H. Trevizani ◽  
Rosalinda C. Montone ◽  
Rubens C. L. Figueira

The polar regions are vulnerable to impacts caused by local and global pollution. The Antarctic continent has been considered an environment that has remained little affected by human activities. Direct exposure to contaminants may occur in areas continuously occupied by research stations for several decades. Admiralty Bay on the southeast coast of King George Island, has potential for being affected by human activities due research stations operating in the area, including the Brazilian Commandant Ferraz Antarctic Station (CFAS). The levels of metals and arsenic were determined in soils collected near CFAS (points 5, 6, 7, and 9), Base G and at two points distant from the CFAS: Refuge II and Hennequin. Samples were collected after the fire in CFAS occurred in February 2012, up to December 2018 to assess the environmental impacts in the area. Al and As were related with Base G. Refuge II and Hennequin can be considered as control points for this region. As a consequence of the accident, the increased levels for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, especially at point 9 (inside the CFAS) and in the soil surrounding the CFAS in 2013. The results from 2016 to 2018 demonstrated a reduction in levels of all studied metals near CFAS, which may be related to the leaching of metals into Admiralty Bay; it is thus, being important the continue monitoring soil, sediments, and Antarctic biota.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-78
Author(s):  
Manuel Bensi ◽  
Vedrana Kovačević ◽  
Federica Donda ◽  
Philip Edward O'Brien ◽  
Linda Armbrecht ◽  
...  

Abstract. Current glacier melt rates in West Antarctica substantially exceed those around the East Antarctic margin. The exception is Wilkes Land, where for example Totten Glacier underwent significant retreat between 2000 and 2012, underlining its sensitivity to climate change. This process is strongly influenced by ocean dynamics, which in turn changes in accordance with the evolution of the ice caps. Here, we present new oceanographic data (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) collected during austral summer 2017 offshore the Sabrina Coast (East Antarctica) from the continental shelf break to ca 3000 m depth. This area is characterized by very few oceanographic in situ observations. The main water masses of the study area, identified by analysing thermohaline properties, are the Antarctic Surface Water with potential temperature θ>-1.5 ∘C and salinity S<34.2 (σθ<27.55 kg m−3), the Winter Water with -1.92<θ<-1.75 ∘C and 34.0<S<34.5 (potential density, 27.55<σθ<27.7 kg m−3), the modified Circumpolar Deep Water with θ>0 ∘C and S>34.5 (σθ>27.7 kg m−3), and Antarctic Bottom Water with -0.50<θ<0 ∘C and 34.63<S<34.67 (27.83<σθ<27.85; neutral density γn>28.30 kg m−3). The latter is a mixture of dense waters from the Ross Sea and Adélie Land continental shelves. Such waters are influenced by the mixing processes they undergo as they move westward along the Antarctic margin, also interacting with the warmer Circumpolar Deep Water. The spatial distribution of water masses offshore the Sabrina Coast also appears to be strongly linked with the complex morpho-bathymetry of the slope and rise area, supporting the hypothesis that downslope processes contribute to shaping the architecture of the distal portion of the continental margin. Oceanographic data presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.25919/yyex-t381 (CSIRO; Van Graas, 2021).


Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 530 (3) ◽  
pp. 287-294
Author(s):  
MATEUSZ RYBAK ◽  
ŁUKASZ PESZEK ◽  
ŁUKASZ SKOCZYLAS ◽  
THELMA ALVIM VEIGA LUDWIG

The samples for this study were collected from terrestrial mosses and lichens growing on palm tree trunks and concrete walls in the city of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. During the investigation on diatom diversity, a new species from the genus Luticola was found. The new species occurred individually at all sampling sites. The aim of this paper is to provide a morphological and ecological description of Luticola minutissima sp. nov. from an aerophytic environment. The species is characterized by a small valve size (5.2–16.8 μm length and 3.7–4.4 wide) and abruptly hooked proximal raphe endings (ca. 90-degree angle). Additionally for comparison, type material of the most similar species, Luticola neglecta Zidarova, Levkov & Van de Vijver, was studied and new information for the ultrastructure of the latter species is provided as well.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Volodymyr Tytar

The Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) is regarded a Southern Hemisphere endemic found throughout the Southern Hemisphere, generally south of 60 degrees S in austral summer. Here they have been routinely observed in highest densities adjacent to and inside the sea ice edge, and where they feed predominantly on krill. Detecting abundance trends regarding this species by employing visual monitoring is problematic. Partly this is because the whales are frequently sighted within sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. In this respect species-habitat models are increasingly recognized as valuable tools to predict the probability of cetacean presence, relative abundance or density throughout an area of interest and to gain insight into the ecological processes affecting these patterns. The objective of this study was to provide this background information for the above research needs and in a broader context use species distribution models (SDMs) to establish a current habitat suitability description for the species and to identify the main environmental covariates related to its distribution. We used filtered 464 occurrences to generate the SDMs. We selected eight predictor variables with reduced collinearity for constructing the models: mean annuals of the surface temperature (degrees C), salinity (PSS), current velocity (m/s), sea ice concentration (fraction, %), chlorophyll-a concentration (mg/cub. m), primary productivity (g/cub.m/day), cloud cover (%), and bathymetry (m). Six modeling algorithms were test and the Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) model demonstrated the best preformance. Based on variable importance, those that best explained the environmental requirements of the species, were: sea ice concentration, chlorophyll-a concentration and topography of the sea floor (bathymetry), explaining in sum around 62% of the variance. Using the BART model, habitat preferences have been interpreted from patterns in partial dependence plots. Areas where the AMW have particularly high likelihood of occurrence are East Antarctica, NE of the Weddell Sea, areas around the northern tip of the Antarctica Peninsula, areas bordering the Scotia-Weddell Confluence. Given the association of AMWs with sea ice, the pagophilic character of their biology makes them particularly vulnerable to climate change and a perfect biological indicator for tracking these changes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2110303118
Author(s):  
Arlie H. McCarthy ◽  
Lloyd S. Peck ◽  
David C. Aldridge

Antarctica, an isolated and long considered pristine wilderness, is becoming increasingly exposed to the negative effects of ship-borne human activity, and especially the introduction of invasive species. Here, we provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis of ship movements into Antarctic waters and a spatially explicit assessment of introduction risk for nonnative marine species in all Antarctic waters. We show that vessels traverse Antarctica’s isolating natural barriers, connecting it directly via an extensive network of ship activity to all global regions, especially South Atlantic and European ports. Ship visits are more than seven times higher to the Antarctic Peninsula (especially east of Anvers Island) and the South Shetland Islands than elsewhere around Antarctica, together accounting for 88% of visits to Southern Ocean ecoregions. Contrary to expectations, we show that while the five recognized “Antarctic Gateway cities” are important last ports of call, especially for research and tourism vessels, an additional 53 ports had vessels directly departing to Antarctica from 2014 to 2018. We identify ports outside Antarctica where biosecurity interventions could be most effectively implemented and the most vulnerable Antarctic locations where monitoring programs for high-risk invaders should be established.


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