compound modification
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2021 ◽  
Vol 54 ◽  
pp. 101744
Masazumi Tamura ◽  
Daiki Hiwatashi ◽  
Yu Gu ◽  
Akira Nakayama ◽  
Yoshinao Nakagawa ◽  

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6784
Jinming Liu ◽  
Boyu Ju ◽  
Wei Xie ◽  
Ting Zhou ◽  
Haiying Xiao ◽  

Coral concrete has low cost and convenient materials, making it an excellent raw material for processing. However, its lower strength limits the application of coral concrete. Surface modification is expected to increase the properties of porous coral concrete. In this study, single and compound modification treatments were applied to the surface of a coral aggregate to improve its properties for promoting the mechanical performance of coral concrete. The results showed that the micro-aggregate effect and pozzolanic activity of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and the permeability and polycondensation of sodium silicate (SS) could be mutually promoted. The GBFS and SS could effectively fill the pores of the coral aggregate, enhancing the properties of the aggregate, such as density and load-bearing capacity, and reducing the water absorption and crushing index by more than 50%. GBFS and SS could intensify and accelerate the hydration of cement, and generate a large number of hard hydration products at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ), which could strengthen the bonding between the aggregate and mortar, improving the strength of the ITZ. The compressive strength of the coral concrete was significantly increased.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6702
Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo ◽  
Ajibola Bamikole Oyedeji ◽  
Janet Adeyinka Adebiyi ◽  
Chiemela Enyinnaya Chinma ◽  
Samson Adeoye Oyeyinka ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of phenolic compound modification during the fermentation of maize flour at different times. Maize was spontaneously fermented into sourdough at varying times (24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h) and, at each point, the pH, titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, and taxifolin) and phenolic acids (caffeic, gallic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and vanillic acids) were investigated. Three kinetic models (zero-, first-, and second-order equations) were used to determine the kinetics of phenolic modification during the fermentation. Results obtained showed that fermentation significantly reduced pH, with a corresponding increase in TTA and TSS. All the investigated flavonoids were significantly reduced after fermentation, while phenolic acids gradually increased during fermentation. Among the kinetic models adopted, first-order (R2 = 0.45–0.96) and zero-order (R2 = 0.20–0.82) equations best described the time-dependent modifications of free and bound flavonoids, respectively. On the other hand, first-order (R2 = 0.46–0.69) and second-order (R2 = 0.005–0.28) equations were best suited to explain the degradation of bound and free phenolic acids, respectively. This study shows that the modification of phenolic compounds during fermentation is compound-specific and that their rates of change may be largely dependent on their forms of existence in the fermented products.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2101 (1) ◽  
pp. 012069
Shibin Liu ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Jianwei Xu ◽  
Xiangcai Meng

Abstract Used Al-13wt%Si alloy was as raw material, the influence mechanism of Al-Sr, Al-P and Al-RE ternary compound modifier was studied by casting technology. The effects of P, Sr and RE modification on Al-13wt% Si were studied by metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray. The effects of the addition order and amount of modifier on the microstructure of Al-13wt% Si were investigated The results show that compared with a single modifier, P + RE + Sr ternary composite modifier has more obvious modification effect on eutectic silicon in Al-13%Si alloy: the microstructure of different morphology can be obtained by using different amount and order of adding modifier. When the amount and order of modifier are 0.5wt%Sr, 0.7wt%P, 1.5wt%RE,the eutectic silicon with small size and uniform distribution can be obtained. Eutectic silicon consists of 70 μm, the slender lamella is refined to 5 μm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Xiangming Deng ◽  
Hui Huang ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Jie Chen

High-performance asphalt binder plays an important role in the durable asphalt pavement. Asphalt modified by rock asphalt (RA) is one of the high-performance modified asphalt materials. It was used in road engineering as a relatively environmentally friendly material, because rock asphalt takes some advantages of large reserves, easy treatment, and efficient modification. Moreover, the main component of rock asphalt is bitumen, which enables it to substitute part of the binder used in asphalt mixtures. On the other hand, the negative low-temperature performance of RA modified asphalt impeded its application in cold regions. The object of this paper is to improve the low-temperature performance of RA modified asphalt by compound modified with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The 70-penetration grade binder and the RA modified asphalt with 15% RA by weight were applied as the base binder. Five types of RA-SBR modified asphalt were prepared, and the content of SBR was 2%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 8% by weight of BRA modified binder. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests were utilized to illustrate the reasons for the poor low-temperature performance of BRA modified asphalt and reveal the compound modification mechanism of BRA-SBR modified asphalt. The Brookfield viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were adopted to reveal the variation patterns of rheological behavior and low-temperature performance with mass contents of SBR. The test results indicated that the worse of low-temperature performance was caused by the increase of asphaltene content and the stress concentration due to ash in RA modified asphalt. And the compound modification is a physical process. The addition of SBR has improved the low-temperature performance of RA modified asphalt dramatically. And based on the rheological behaviors and low-temperature performance of RA-SBR compound modified asphalt, the optimum content of SBR was determined, which is about 4%∼5%.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 797
Xiaoguang Pei ◽  
Weiyu Fan

Oil sands de-oiled asphalt (OSDOA) has become a bottleneck for refineries due to its enormous production and huge landfill costs. Applying OSDOA as a modifier is an effective way to reduce environmental pollution and disposal cost. In this study, the influences of OSDOA and polyphosphoric acid (PPA) compound modification on styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified binder were investigated. The high-temperature rutting resistance, low-temperature anti-crack performance and fatigue resistance were obtained by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR) test. Storage stability and microstructure were also investigated by storage test and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the compound modification of OSDOA/PPA dramatically enhanced the deformation resistance of SBS-modified binder and reduced its low-temperature cracking resistance. The anti-fatigue performance was also decreased. Moreover, the combined effect of OSDOA and PPA could produce composite modified asphalt with excellent storage stability, which was verified by desirable fluorescence images. Furthermore, both physical and chemical interactions coexisted during the OSDOA/PPA compound modification process. Consequently, the optimal doses of OSDOA and PPA were determined to be 10 wt% and 1.0 wt%, considering of the balance between high- and low-temperature characteristics and storage stability of composite modified asphalt.

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