The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV 2) or 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is quickly spreading to the rest of the world, from its origin in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. And becoming a global pandemic that affects the world's most powerful countries. The goal of this review is to assist scientists, researchers, and others in responding to the current Coronavirus disease (covid-19) is a worldwide public health contingency state. This review discusses current evidence based on recently published studies which is related to the origin of the virus, epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and all studies in Iraq for the effect of covid-19 diseases, as well as provide a reference for future researchers. The findings of this review show significant differences across gender, age group, area of residence, environmental agents (temperature, humidity), and people with chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, respiratory disorders, and immunocompromised disease). To control the pandemic, information about COVID-19 was disseminated to people, including wearing a face mask and using a social distancing strategy as an effective tool for controlling COVID-19. More education and progress are required to convince the public that the vaccine is both effective and safe.
Research in basic and clinical neuroscience of music conducted over the past decades has begun to uncover music’s high potential as a tool for rehabilitation. Advances in our understanding of how music engages parallel brain networks underpinning sensory and motor processes, arousal, reward, and affective regulation, have laid a sound neuroscientific foundation for the development of theory-driven music interventions that have been systematically tested in clinical settings. Of particular significance in the context of motor rehabilitation is the notion that musical rhythms can entrain movement patterns in patients with movement-related disorders, serving as a continuous time reference that can help regulate movement timing and pace. To date, a significant number of clinical and experimental studies have tested the application of rhythm- and music-based interventions to improve motor functions following central nervous injury and/or degeneration. The goal of this review is to appraise the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of music and rhythm to modulate movement spatiotemporal patterns and restore motor function. By organizing and providing a critical appraisal of a large body of research, we hope to provide a revised framework for future research on the effectiveness of rhythm- and music-based interventions to restore and (re)train motor function.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly forms of cancer in Western countries. Inflammation is a well-known driver of colonic carcinogenesis; however, its role in CRC extends beyond colitis-associated cancer. Over the last decades, numerous associations between intestinal dysbiosis and CRC have been identified, with more recent studies providing mechanistic evidence of a causative relationship. Nonetheless, much remains to be discovered regarding the precise implications of microbiome alterations in the pathogenesis of CRC. Research confirms the importance of a bidirectional crosstalk between the gut microbiome and the mucosal immune system in which inflammasomes, multiprotein complexes that can sense “danger signals,” serve as conduits by detecting microbial signals and activating innate immune responses, including the induction of microbicidal activities that can alter microbiome composition. Current evidence strongly supports an active role for this “inflammasome–microbiome axis” in the initiation and development of CRC. Furthermore, the gasdermin (GSDM) family of proteins, which are downstream effectors of the inflammasome that are primarily known for their role in pyroptosis, have been recently linked to CRC pathogenesis. These findings, however, do not come without controversy, as pyroptosis is reported to exert both anti- and protumorigenic functions. Furthermore, the multi-faceted interactions between GSDMs and the gut microbiome, as well as their importance in CRC, have only been superficially investigated. In this review, we summarize the existing literature supporting the importance of the inflammasome–microbiota axis, as well as the activation and function of GSDMs, to gain a better mechanistic understanding of CRC pathogenesis.
Obesity is a major current public health problem of global significance. A progressive sperm quality decline, and a decline in male fertility, have been reported in recent decades. Several studies have reported a strict relationship between obesity and male reproductive dysfunction. Among the many mechanisms by which obesity impairs male gonadal function, sirtuins (SIRTs) have an emerging role. SIRTs are highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases that play a role in gene regulation, metabolism, aging, and cancer. SIRTs regulate the energy balance, the lipid balance, glucose metabolism, and adipogenesis, but current evidence also indicates a role for SIRTs in male reproduction. However, the majority of the studies have been conducted in animal models and very few have been conducted with humans. This review shows that SIRTs play an important role among the molecular mechanisms by which obesity interferes with male fertility. This highlights the need to deepen this relationship. It will be of particular interest to evaluate whether synthetic and/or natural compounds capable of modifying the activity of SIRTs may also be useful for the treatment of obesity and its effects on gonadal function. Although few studies have explored the role of SIRT activators in obesity-induced male infertility, some molecules, such as resveratrol, appear to be effective in modulating SIRT activity, as well as counteracting the negative effects of obesity on male fertility. The search for strategies to improve male reproductive function in overweight/obese patients is a challenge and understanding the role of SIRTs and their activators may open new interesting scenarios in the coming years.
AbstractThe management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has taken a major stride forward with the advent of anti-VEGF agents. The treat-and-extend (T&E) approach is a refined management strategy, tailoring to the individual patient’s disease course and treatment outcome. To provide guidance to implementing anti-VEGF T&E regimens for nAMD in resource-limited health care systems, an advisory board was held to discuss and generate expert consensus, based on local and international guidelines, current evidence, as well as local experience and reimbursement policies. In the experts’ opinion, treatment of nAMD should aim to maximize and maintain visual acuity benefits while minimizing treatment burden. Based on current evidence, treatment could be initiated with 3 consecutive monthly injections. After the initial period, treatment interval may be extended by 2 or 4 weeks each time for the qualified patients (i.e. no BCVA loss ≥5 ETDRS letters and dry retina), and a maximum interval of 16 weeks is permitted. For patients meeting the shortening criteria (i.e. any increased fluid with BCVA loss ≥5 ETDRS letters, or presence of new macular hemorrhage or new neovascularization), the treatment interval should be reduced by 2 or 4 weeks each time, with a minimal interval of 4 weeks. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF may be considered for those who have received 2–3 consecutive injections spaced 16 weeks apart and present with stable disease. For these individuals, regular monitoring (e.g. 3–4 months) is recommended and monthly injections should be reinstated upon signs of disease recurrence.
Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin-1 receptor type A (ETAR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on the surface of a great variety of cells: immune cells, vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts express ETAR and AT1R, which are activated by endothelin 1 (ET1) and angiotensin II (AngII), respectively. Certain autoantibodies are specific for these receptors and can regulate their function, thus being known as functional autoantibodies. The function of these antibodies is similar to that of natural ligands, and it involves not only vasoconstriction, but also the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-6 (IL6), IL8 and TNF-α), collagen production by fibroblasts, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by fibroblasts and neutrophils. The role of autoantibodies against AT1R and ETAR (AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs, respectively) is well described in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions (e.g., systemic sclerosis (SSc) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and allograft dysfunction), but their implications in cardiovascular diseases are still unclear. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs in cardiovascular pathologies, highlighting their roles in heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support, preeclampsia, and acute coronary syndromes.
Introduction: Oxygen therapy remains the cornerstone for managing patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and several modalities of non-invasive ventilation are used worldwide. High-flow oxygen via nasal canula is one therapeutic option which may in certain cases prevent the need of mechanical ventilation. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the use of high-flow nasal oxygen in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.Material and Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Library until April 2021 using the following search terms: “high flow oxygen and COVID-19” and “high flow nasal and COVID-19’’.Results: Twenty-three articles were included in this review, in four of which prone positioning was used as an adjunctive measure. Most of the articles were cohort studies or case series. High-flow nasal oxygen therapy was associated with a reduced need for invasive ventilation compared to conventional oxygen therapy and led to an improvement in secondary clinical outcomes such as length of stay. The efficacy of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy was comparable to that of other non-invasive ventilation options, but its tolerability is likely higher. Failure of this modality was associated with increased mortality.Conclusion: High flow nasal oxygen is an established option for respiratory support in COVID-19 patients. Further investigation is required to quantify its efficacy and utility in preventing the requirement of invasive ventilation.
This study aimed to assess current evidence regarding the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on the prognosis in patients sustaining trauma. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched with the following terms: “trace element”, “selenium”, “copper”, “zinc”, “injury”, and “trauma”. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that Se supplementation was associated with a lower mortality rate (OR 0.733, 95% CI: 0.586, 0.918, p = 0.007; heterogeneity, I2 = 0%). Regarding the incidence of infectious complications, there was no statistically significant benefit after analyzing the four studies (OR 0.942, 95% CI: 0.695, 1.277, p = 0.702; heterogeneity, I2 = 14.343%). The patients with Se supplementation had a reduced ICU length of stay (standard difference in means (SMD): −0.324, 95% CI: −0.382, −0.265, p < 0.001; heterogeneity, I2 = 0%) and lesser hospital length of stay (SMD: −0.243, 95% CI: −0.474, −0.012, p < 0.001; heterogeneity, I2 = 45.496%). Se supplementation after trauma confers positive effects in decreasing the mortality and length of ICU and hospital stay.
The Ab-Bid deposit, located in the Tabas-Posht e Badam metallogenic belt (TPMB) in Central Iran, is the largest Pb-Zn (±Cu) deposit in the Behadad-Kuhbanan mining district. Sulfide mineralization in the Ab-Bid deposit formed in Middle Triassic carbonate rocks and contains galena and sphalerite with minor pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, and barite. Silicification and dolomitization are the main wall-rock alteration styles. Structural and textural observations indicate that the mineralization occurs as fault fills with coarse-textured, brecciated, and replacement sulfides deposited in a bookshelf structure. The Ab-Bid ore minerals precipitated from high temperature (≈180–200 °C) basinal brines within the dolomitized and silicified carbonates. The sulfur isotope values of ore sulfides suggest a predominant thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) process, and the sulfur source was probably Triassic-Jurassic seawater sulfate. Given the current evidence, mineralization at Ab-Bid resulted from focusing of heated, over-pressurized brines of modified basinal origin into an active fault system. The association of the sulfide mineralization with intensely altered wall rock represents a typical example of such features in the Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) metallogenic domain of the TPMB. According to the structural data, the critical ore control is a bookshelf structure having mineralized dextral strike-slip faults in the northern part of the Ab-Bid reverse fault, which seems to be part of a sinistral brittle shear zone. Structural relationships also indicate that the strata-bound, fault-controlled Ab-Bid deposit was formed after the Middle Jurassic, and its formation may be related to compressive and deformation stages of the Mid-Cimmerian in the Middle Jurassic to Laramide orogenic cycle in the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary.
Anthracyclines are one of the most effective chemotherapy agents and have revolutionized cancer therapy. However, anthracyclines can induce cardiac injuries through ‘multiple-hits', a series of cardiovascular insults coupled with lifestyle risk factors, which increase the risk of developing short- and long-term cardiac dysfunction and cardiovascular disease that potentially lead to premature mortality following cancer remission. Therefore, the management of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a serious unmet clinical need. Exercise therapy, as a non-pharmacological intervention, stimulates numerous biochemical and physiologic adaptations, including cardioprotective effects, through the cardiovascular system and cardiac muscles, where exercise has been proposed to be an effective clinical approach that can protect or reverse the cardiotoxicity from anthracyclines. Many preclinical and clinical trials demonstrate the potential impacts of exercise on cardiotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanisms as well as how to implement exercise in clinical settings to improve or protect against long-term cardiovascular disease outcomes are not clearly defined. In this review, we summarize the current evidence in the field of “exercise cardio-oncology” and emphasize the utilization of exercise to prevent and manage anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicities across high-risk and vulnerable populations diagnosed with cancer.