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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 501
Seong-Sik Kim ◽  
Soon-Pill Jeong ◽  
Bong-Soo Park ◽  
In-Ryoung Kim

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that is involved in the biorhythm of reproductive activities. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of melatonin on osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells according to changes in V-ATPase and the corresponding inhibition of the MAPK and NFATc1 signaling processes. Methods: the cytotoxic effect of melatonin was investigated by MTT assay. Osteoclast differentiation and gene expression of osteoclast-related factors were confirmed via TRAP staining, pit formation assay, immunofluorescence imaging, western blot, and real-time PCR. Results: melatonin was found to inactivate the p38 and JNK of MAP kinase in RAW264.7 cells treated with RANKL and treated with a combination RANKL and melatonin for 1, 3, and 5 days. The melatonin treatment group showed a reduction in osteoclastogenesis transcription factors and ATP6v0d2 gene expression. Conclusions: melatonin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and cell fusion by inhibiting the expression of Atp6v0d2 through the inactivation of MAPK and NFATc1 signaling in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The findings of the present study suggest that melatonin could be a suitable therapy for bone loss and imply a potential role of melatonin in bone health.

2021 ◽  
Lalith P Ethiraj ◽  
Samuel En Lei Fong ◽  
Ranran Liu ◽  
Christoph W Winkler ◽  
Tom J Carney

Histochemical detection of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity is a fundamental technique for visualizing osteoclastic bone resorption and assessing osteoclast activity status in tissues. This approach has mostly employed colorimetric detection, which has limited quantification of activity in situ and co-labelling with other skeletal markers. Here we report simple colorimetric and fluorescent TRAP assays in zebrafish and medaka, two important model organisms for investigating the pathogenesis of bone disorders. We show fluorescent TRAP staining, utilising the ELF97 substrate, is a rapid, robust and stable system to visualise and quantify osteoclast activity in zebrafish, and is compatible with other fluorescence stains, transgenic lines and antibody approaches. Using this approach, we show that TRAP activity is predominantly found around the base of the zebrafish pharyngeal teeth, where osteoclast activity state appears to be heterogeneous.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 297-305
Min-Kyoung Song ◽  
Suhan Jung ◽  
Seojin Hong ◽  
Jun-Oh Kwon ◽  
Min Kyung Kim ◽  

Background: Protein methylation has important role in regulating diverse cellular responses, including differentiation, by affecting protein activity, stability, and interactions. AZ505 is an inhibitor of the SET and MYND domain-containing protein 2 lysine methylase. In this study, we investigated the effect of AZ505 on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation in vitro and evaluated the effect of AZ505 in vivo on the long bones in mice.Methods: Osteoblast differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red staining after culturing calvarial preosteoblasts in an osteogenic medium. Osteoclast differentiation was analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining in bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured with macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AZ505 and femurs were examined by micro-computed tomography.Results: AZ505 increased ALP and Alizarin red staining in cultured osteoblasts and the expression of osteoblast marker genes, including Runx2 and osteocalcin. AZ505 resulted in decreased TRAP-staining of osteoclasts and expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells transcription factors and osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein. Unexpectedly, in vivo administration of AZ505 markedly decreased the trabecular bone mass of femurs. In support of this catabolic result, AZ505 strongly upregulated RANKL expression in osteoblasts.Conclusions: The results indicate that AZ505 has a catabolic effect on bone metabolism in vivo despite its anabolic effect in bone cell cultures. The findings indicate that cell culture data should be extrapolated cautiously to in vivo outcomes for studying bone metabolism.

Liang Chen ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Xingchen Lu ◽  
Lili Zhang ◽  
Ziming Wang

Bone metastasis is positively associated with a poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC always leads to osteolytic change, which is regulated by aberrant activation of osteoclasts. MicroRNAs are remarkedly involved in metastasis of CRC; however, their role in bone metastasis of CRC is still unclear. The aim of this study is to find key microRNAs that are critical to bone resorption in bone metastasis of CRC. In this study, bone metastasis model was established through intratibially injecting CT-26 cells or MC-38 cells. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed to explore the osteoclastogenesis of primary early osteoclast precursors (OCPs) after stimulation by CT-26 conditioned medium (CM). Then, microarray assay was performed to find differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs. The target gene of miRNA was confirmed by dual-luciferase analysis. The effect of miRNA, its target gene on osteoclastogenesis, and involved pathways were explored by Western blot, immunofluorescence analysis, and TRAP staining. Finally, the effect of miRNA on bone resorption in vivo was observed. miRNA-7062-5p was upregulated in early OCPs cultured in CT-26 CM or MC-38 CM. GPR65 was proven to be the target gene of miRNA-7062-5p. Overexpression of GPR65 can rescue the osteoclastogenesis caused by miRNA-7062-5p through activation of AMPK pathway. Local injection of miRNA-7062-5p inhibitors efficiently improved the bone resorption. Our study found the role of miRNA-7062-5p in regulating osteoclast formation, and our findings provided a potential therapeutic target in treatment of bone metastasis of CRC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yunyun Qu ◽  
Xin Liu ◽  
Shuai Zong ◽  
Huanxin Sun ◽  
Shuang Liu ◽  

Protocatechualdehyde (PCA), an important component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has many activities, such as anti-inflammatory and antisepsis activities. However, the role of PCA in osteoclasts is not clear. We used RAW264.7 cells (a mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line) and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to probe the role of PCA in osteoclasts and the underlying mechanism. The effects of PCA on cell activity were evaluated with CCK-8 assays. TRAP staining detected mature osteoclasts. Corning Osteo Assay Surface plates were used to examine absorption. The levels of RNA and protein were analyzed, respectively, using RT-PCR and Western blotting. PCA (5 μg/ml) was not toxic to the two cell types but reduced the formation of osteoclasts and bone absorption. Furthermore, PCA restrained the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins associated with osteoclasts and reduced the phosphorylation of proteins in important signaling pathways. The results indicate that PCA inhibits osteoclast differentiation by suppressing NF-κB and MAPK activity.

Inflammation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Hyun Jung Jung ◽  
Won Lee ◽  
Jin-Su Shin ◽  
Sang-Kyou Lee ◽  
Jae Hoon Lee

AbstractThe objective of this study was to find out if suppression of NF-kB complex function by p65-TMD-linked PTD could reduce host inflammation and bone resorption at peri-implantitis sites in rats. Twenty-one male 5-week-old SD rats were divided into three groups: untreated control group (A), silk-induced peri-implantitis group (B), and nt (nucleus transducible)-p65-TMD-treated, silk-induced peri-implantitis group (C). Implant sulcus of a rat in group C were divided into two groups, namely group Cp and Cb. Palatal implant sulcus where nt-p65-TMD solution was applied with an insulin syringe were assigned to group Cp. Buccal implant sulcus without topical nt-p65-TMD application were assigned to group Cb. H&E staining, TRAP staining, and immunohistological staining were done. The crestal bone levels of group A were significantly higher than those of group B at p<0.01. The crestal bone levels of group Cp were significantly higher than those of group Cb at p<0.05. H-E staining showed increased apical migration of junctional epithelium and inflammatory cells in group Cb. TRAP staining revealed more multinucleated osteoclasts in group Cb. As for immunohistological staining, group Cb showed many IL-6-positive cells while group Cp had none. In this study, p65-TMD-linked PTD inhibited NF-kB functions and reduced inflammation and bone resorption at peri-implantitis sites in rats.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Hui Yu ◽  
Tianyi Zhang ◽  
Haibin Lu ◽  
Qi Ma ◽  
Dong Zhao ◽  

Abstract Background Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an important immune factor that mediates bone metabolism by regulating the functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Bone loss is a serious and progressive result of periodontitis. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of G-CSF on periodontal inflammation have yet not been completely elucidated. Here, we examined whether an anti-G-CSF antibody could inhibit bone resorption in a model of experimental periodontitis and investigated the local expression of G-CSF in periodontal tissues. Methods Experimental periodontitis was induced in mice using ligatures. The levels of G-CSF in serum and bone marrow were measured; immunofluorescence was then performed to analyze the localization and expression of G-CSF in periodontal tissues. Mice with periodontitis were administered anti-G-CSF antibody by tail vein injection to assess the inhibition of bone resorption. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed to measure bone destruction‐related parameters via micro-computed tomography analysis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to investigate the presence of osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts; tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe osteoclast activity in alveolar bone. Results The level of G-CSF in serum was significantly elevated in mice with periodontitis. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that G-CSF was mostly expressed in the cell membrane of gingival epithelial cells; this expression was enhanced in the periodontitis group. Additionally, systemic administration of anti-G-CSF antibody significantly inhibited alveolar bone resorption, as evidenced by improvements in bone volume/total volume, bone surface area/bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular spacing, and trabecular pattern factor values. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed an enhanced number of osteocalcin-positive osteoblasts, while TRAP staining revealed reduction of osteoclast activity. Conclusions G-CSF expression levels were significantly up-regulated in the serum and gingival epithelial cells. Together, anti-G-CSF antibody administration could alleviates alveolar bone resorption, suggesting that G-CSF may be one of the essential immune factors that mediate the bone loss in periodontitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Qi Sun ◽  
Fa-Ming Tian ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Jia-Kang Fang ◽  
Yun-Peng Hu ◽  

Abstract Background Although adjacent segmental intervertebral disc degeneration (ASDD) is one of the most common complications after lumbar fusion, its exact mechanism remains unclear. As an antibody to RANKL, denosumab (Dmab) effectively reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation, which can increase bone mineral density (BMD) and improve osteoporosis. However, it has not been confirmed whether Dmab has a reversing or retarding effect on ASDD. Methods Three-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent L4–L5 posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) with spinous-process wire fixation 4 weeks after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) surgery were given Dmab 4 weeks after PLF surgery (OVX+PLF+Dmab group). In addition, the following control groups were defined: Sham, OVX, PLF, and OVX+PLF (n=12 each). Next, manual palpation and X-ray were used to evaluate the state of lumbar fusion. The bone microstructure in the lumbar vertebra and endplate as well as the disc height index (DHI) of L5/6 was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (μCT). The characteristic alterations of ASDD were identified via Safranin-O green staining. Osteoclasts were detected using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and the biomechanical properties of vertebrae were evaluated. Aggrecan (Agg), metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 (ADAMTS-4) expression in the intervertebral disc were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. In addition, the expression of CD24 and Sox-9 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Manual palpation showed clear evidence of the fused segment’s immobility. Compared to the OVX+PLF group, more new bone formation was observed by X-ray examination in the OVX+PLF+Dmab group. Dmab significantly alleviated ASDD by retaining disc height index (DHI), decreasing endplate porosity, and increasing vertebral biomechanical properties and BMD. TRAP staining results showed a significantly decreased number of active osteoclasts after Dmab treatment, especially in subchondral bone and cartilaginous endplates. Moreover, the protein and mRNA expression results in discs (IVDs) showed that Dmab not only inhibited matrix degradation by decreasing MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 but also promoted matrix synthesis by increasing Agg. Dmab maintained the number of notochord cells by increasing CD24 but reducing Sox-9. Conclusions These results suggest that Dmab may be a novel therapeutic target for ASDD treatment.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 619
Hyun-Jung Park ◽  
Malihatosadat Gholam-Zadeh ◽  
Sun-Young Yoon ◽  
Jae-Hee Suh ◽  
Hye-Seon Choi

Loss of ovarian function is closely related to estrogen (E2) deficiency, which is responsible for increased osteoclast (OC) differentiation and activity. We aimed to investigate the action mechanism of E2 to decrease bone resorption in OCs to protect from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in mice. In vivo, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining in femur and serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks-1 (CTX-1) were analyzed upon E2 injection after OVX in mice. In vitro, OCs were analyzed by TRAP staining, actin ring formation, carboxymethylation, determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and immunoprecipitation coupled with Western blot. In vivo and in vitro, E2 decreased OC size more dramatically than OC number and Methyl-piperidino-pyrazole hydrate dihydrochloride (MPPD), an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonist, augmented the OC size. ERα was found in plasma membranes and E2/ERα signaling affected receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced actin ring formation by rapidly decreasing a proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, cellular sarcoma (c-Src) (Y416) phosphorylation in OCs. E2 exposure decreased physical interactions between NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and the oxidized form of c-Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), leading to higher levels of reduced SHP2. ERα formed a complex with the reduced form of SHP2 and c-Src to decrease c-Src activation upon E2 exposure, which blocked a signal for actin ring formation by decreased Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (Vav3) (p–Y) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) (GTP) activation in OCs. E2/ERα signals consistently inhibited bone resorption in vitro. In conclusion, our study suggests that E2-binding to ERα forms a complex with SHP2/c-Src to attenuate c-Src activation that was induced upon RANKL stimulation in a non-genomic manner, resulting in an impaired actin ring formation and reducing bone resorption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (2) ◽  
pp. 003685042110132
Daocheng Liu ◽  
Sihao He ◽  
Sixu Chen ◽  
Lei Yang ◽  
Jiazhi Yang ◽  

To investigate whether activating the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway differentially promotes fracture healing in aged and adult individuals. CatnbTM2Kem, Catnblox(ex3) and wild-type adult and aged mice were used in this study. The femur was electroporated through a hole with a diameter of 0.6 mm. On the 7th, 14th and 21st days after fracture establishment, repair of the femoral diaphyseal bone was examined using X-ray and CT, the levels of mRNAs related to Wnt/β-catenin signalling were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and angiogenesis and cell differentiation were observed using immunohistochemistry. The numbers of osteoclasts were determined by TRAP staining. Wnt/β-catenin activation accelerated fracture healing in adult mice, with more pronounced effects on aged mice. Compared with wild-type mice at the corresponding ages, Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation induced higher levels of angiogenesis and cell differentiation in aged mice than in adult mice and promoted fracture healing. The administration of medications targeting Wnt/β-catenin signalling to aged patients may accelerate fracture healing to a greater extent.

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