Transcription Factor Occupancy
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

63
(FIVE YEARS 32)

H-INDEX

20
(FIVE YEARS 7)

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Arno Meiler ◽  
Fabio Marchiano ◽  
Margaux Haering ◽  
Manuela Weitkunat ◽  
Frank Schnorrer ◽  
...  

AbstractGene expression regulation requires precise transcriptional programs, led by transcription factors in combination with epigenetic events. Recent advances in epigenomic and transcriptomic techniques provided insight into different gene regulation mechanisms. However, to date it remains challenging to understand how combinations of transcription factors together with epigenetic events control cell-type specific gene expression. We have developed the AnnoMiner web-server, an innovative and flexible tool to annotate and integrate epigenetic, and transcription factor occupancy data. First, AnnoMiner annotates user-provided peaks with gene features. Second, AnnoMiner can integrate genome binding data from two different transcriptional regulators together with gene features. Third, AnnoMiner offers to explore the transcriptional deregulation of genes nearby, or within a specified genomic region surrounding a user-provided peak. AnnoMiner’s fourth function performs transcription factor or histone modification enrichment analysis for user-provided gene lists by utilizing hundreds of public, high-quality datasets from ENCODE for the model organisms human, mouse, Drosophila and C. elegans. Thus, AnnoMiner can predict transcriptional regulators for a studied process without the strict need for chromatin data from the same process. We compared AnnoMiner to existing tools and experimentally validated several transcriptional regulators predicted by AnnoMiner to indeed contribute to muscle morphogenesis in Drosophila. AnnoMiner is freely available at http://chimborazo.ibdm.univ-mrs.fr/AnnoMiner/.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Colin Kern ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Xiaoqin Xu ◽  
Zhangyuan Pan ◽  
Michelle Halstead ◽  
...  

AbstractGene regulatory elements are central drivers of phenotypic variation and thus of critical importance towards understanding the genetics of complex traits. The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes consortium was formed to collaboratively annotate the functional elements in animal genomes, starting with domesticated animals. Here we present an expansive collection of datasets from eight diverse tissues in three important agricultural species: chicken (Gallus gallus), pig (Sus scrofa), and cattle (Bos taurus). Comparative analysis of these datasets and those from the human and mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements projects reveal that a core set of regulatory elements are functionally conserved independent of divergence between species, and that tissue-specific transcription factor occupancy at regulatory elements and their predicted target genes are also conserved. These datasets represent a unique opportunity for the emerging field of comparative epigenomics, as well as the agricultural research community, including species that are globally important food resources.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hsiao-Lin V. Wang ◽  
Samantha Forestier ◽  
Victor G. Corces

ABSTRACTOne in 54 children in the U.S. is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). De novo germline and somatic mutations cannot account for all cases of ASD, suggesting that epigenetic alterations triggered by environmental exposures may be responsible for a subset of ASD cases. Human and animal studies have shown that exposure of the developing brain to general anesthetic (GA) agents can trigger neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities but the effects of general anesthetics on the germ line have not been explored in detail. We exposed pregnant mice to sevoflurane during the time of embryonic development when the germ cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming and found that more than 38% of the directly exposed F1 animals exhibit impairments in anxiety and social interactions. Strikingly, 44-47% of the F2 and F3 animals, which were not directly exposed to sevoflurane, show the same behavioral problems. We performed ATAC-seq and identified more than 1,200 differentially accessible sites in the sperm of F1 animals, 69 of which are also present in the sperm of F2 animals. These sites are located in regulatory regions of genes strongly associated with ASD, including Arid1b, Ntrk2, and Stmn2. These findings suggest that epimutations caused by exposing germ cells to sevoflurane can lead to ASD in the offspring, and this effect can be transmitted through the male germline inter and trans-generationally.Summary sentencePregnant mouse F0 females exposed to sevoflurane give rise to F1 males with sociability and anxiety defects. These behaviors are transmitted to F2 and F3 males. Their sperm show changes in transcription factor occupancy in genes implicated in autism.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Arno Meiler ◽  
Fabio Marchiano ◽  
Michaela Weikunat ◽  
Frank Schnorrer ◽  
Bianca H. Habermann

AbstractGene expression regulation requires precise transcriptional programs, led by transcription factors in combination with epigenetic events. Recent advances in epigenomic and transcriptomic techniques provided insight into different gene regulation mechanisms. However, to date it remains challenging to understand how combinations of transcription factors together with epigenetic events control cell-type specific gene expression. We developed the AnnoMiner web-server and introduce an innovative and flexible way to annotate and integrate epigenetic, and transcription factor occupancy data. First, AnnoMiner annotates user-provided peaks with gene features. Second, AnnoMiner can integrate genome binding data from two different transcriptional regulators together with gene features. Third, AnnoMiner offers to explore the transcriptional deregulation of 10 genes nearby a user-provided peak. AnnoMiner’s fourth function performs transcription factor or histone mark enrichment analysis for user-provided gene lists by utilizing hundreds of public, high-quality datasets from ENCODE for the model organisms human, mouse, Drosophila and C. elegans. Thus, AnnoMiner can predict transcriptional regulators for a studied process without the strict need for chromatin data from the same process. We compared AnnoMiner to existing tools and experimentally validated several transcriptional regulators predicted by AnnoMiner to indeed contribute to muscle morphogenesis in Drosophila. AnnoMiner is freely available at http://chimborazo.ibdm.univ-mrs.fr/AnnoMiner/.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Parker Knight ◽  
Marie-Pierre L. Gauthier ◽  
Carolina E. Pardo ◽  
Russell P. Darst ◽  
Alberto Riva ◽  
...  

AbstractDifferential DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility are associated with disease development, particularly cancer. Methods that allow profiling of these epigenetic mechanisms in the same reaction and at the single-molecule or single-cell level continue to emerge. However, a challenge lies in jointly visualizing and analyzing the heterogeneous nature of the data and extracting regulatory insight. Here, we developed methylscaper, a visualization framework for simultaneous analysis of DNA methylation and chromatin landscapes. Methylscaper implements a weighted principle component analysis that orders sequencing reads, each providing a record of the chromatin state of one epiallele, and reveals patterns of nucleosome positioning, transcription factor occupancy, and DNA methylation. We demonstrate methylscaper’s utility on a long-read, single-molecule methyltransferase accessibility protocol for individual templates (MAPit) dataset and a single-cell nucleosome, methylation, and transcription sequencing (scNMT-seq) dataset. In comparison to other procedures, methylscaper is able to readily identify chromatin features that are biologically relevant to transcriptional status while scaling to larger datasets.Availability and implementationMethylscaper, is available on GitHub at https://github.com/rhondabacher/[email protected]


Author(s):  
Marek Bartosovic ◽  
Mukund Kabbe ◽  
Gonçalo Castelo-Branco

AbstractThe development of the mouse central nervous system (CNS) involves coordinated execution of transcriptional and epigenetic programs. These programs have been extensively studied through single-cell technologies in a pursuit to characterize the underlying cell heterogeneity. However, histone modifications pose additional layers of both positive and negative regulation that defines cellular identity. Here we show that the Cut&Tag technology can be coupled with a droplet-based single cell library preparation platform to produce high quality chromatin modifications data at a single cell resolution in tens of thousands of cells. We apply single-cell Cut&Tag (scC&T) to probe histone modifications characteristic of active promoters (H3K4me3), active promoters and enhancers (H3K27ac), active gene bodies (H3K36me3) and inactive regions (H3K27me3) and generate scC&T profiles for almost 50,000 cells. scC&T profiles of each of these histone modifications were sufficient to determine cell identity and deconvolute at single cell level regulatory principles such as promoter bivalency, spreading of H3K4me3 and promoter-enhancer connectivity. Moreover, we used scC&T to investigate the single-cell chromatin occupancy of transcription factor Olig2 and the cohesin complex component Rad21. Our results indicate that analysis of histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy at a single cell resolution can provide unique insights of epigenomic landscapes in the CNS. We also provide an online resource that can be used to interactively explore the data at https://castelobranco.shinyapps.io/BrainCutAndTag2020/.


Science ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 368 (6498) ◽  
pp. 1449-1454 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrew B. Stergachis ◽  
Brian M. Debo ◽  
Eric Haugen ◽  
L. Stirling Churchman ◽  
John A. Stamatoyannopoulos

Gene regulation is chiefly determined at the level of individual linear chromatin molecules, yet our current understanding of cis-regulatory architectures derives from fragmented sampling of large numbers of disparate molecules. We developed an approach for precisely stenciling the structure of individual chromatin fibers onto their composite DNA templates using nonspecific DNA N6-adenine methyltransferases. Single-molecule long-read sequencing of chromatin stencils enabled nucleotide-resolution readout of the primary architecture of multikilobase chromatin fibers (Fiber-seq). Fiber-seq exposed widespread plasticity in the linear organization of individual chromatin fibers and illuminated principles guiding regulatory DNA actuation, the coordinated actuation of neighboring regulatory elements, single-molecule nucleosome positioning, and single-molecule transcription factor occupancy. Our approach and results open new vistas on the primary architecture of gene regulation.


Author(s):  
Eric M. Sanford ◽  
Benjamin L. Emert ◽  
Allison Coté ◽  
Arjun Raj

AbstractSignals often ultimately affect the transcription of genes, and often, two different signals can affect the transcription of the same gene. In such cases, it is natural to ask how the combined transcriptional response compares to the individual responses. Mechanistic models can predict a range of combined responses, with the most commonly applied models predicting additive or multiplicative responses, but systematic genome-wide evaluation of these predictions are not available. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional response of human MCF-7 cells to two different signals (retinoic acid and TGF-β), applied individually and in combination. We found that the combined responses exhibited a range of behaviors, but clearly favored both additive and multiplicative combined transcriptional responses. We also performed paired chromatin accessibility measurements to measure putative transcription factor occupancy at regulatory elements near these genes. We found that increases in chromatin accessibility were largely additive, meaning that the combined accessibility response was the sum of the accessibility responses to each signal individually. We found some association between super-additivity of accessibility and multiplicative or super-multiplicative combined transcriptional responses, while sub-additivity of accessibility associated with additive transcriptional responses. Our findings suggest that mechanistic models of combined transcriptional regulation must be able to reproduce a range of behaviors.


Author(s):  
Jeff Vierstra ◽  
John Lazar ◽  
Richard Sandstrom ◽  
Jessica Halow ◽  
Kristen Lee ◽  
...  

AbstractCombinatorial binding of transcription factors to regulatory DNA underpins gene regulation in all organisms. Genetic variation in regulatory regions has been connected with diseases and diverse phenotypic traits1, yet it remains challenging to distinguish variants that impact regulatory function2. Genomic DNase I footprinting enables quantitative, nucleotide-resolution delineation of sites of transcription factor occupancy within native chromatin3–5. However, to date only a small fraction of such sites have been precisely resolved on the human genome sequence5. To enable comprehensive mapping of transcription factor footprints, we produced high-density DNase I cleavage maps from 243 human cell and tissue types and states and integrated these data to delineate at nucleotide resolution ~4.5 million compact genomic elements encoding transcription factor occupancy. We map the fine-scale structure of ~1.6 million DHS and show that the overwhelming majority is populated by well-spaced sites of single transcription factor:DNA interaction. Cell context-dependent cis-regulation is chiefly executed by wholesale actuation of accessibility at regulatory DNA versus by differential transcription factor occupancy within accessible elements. We show further that the well-described enrichment of disease- and phenotypic trait-associated genetic variants in regulatory regions1,6 is almost entirely attributable to variants localizing within footprints, and that functional variants impacting transcription factor occupancy are nearly evenly partitioned between loss- and gain-of-function alleles. Unexpectedly, we find that the global density of human genetic variation is markedly increased within transcription factor footprints, revealing an unappreciated driver of cis-regulatory evolution. Our results provide a new framework for both global and nucleotide-precision analyses of gene regulatory mechanisms and functional genetic variation.


Author(s):  
Peter L. Freddolino ◽  
Thomas J. Goss ◽  
Haley M. Amemiya ◽  
Saeed Tavazoie

AbstractFree living bacteria adapt to environmental change by reprogramming gene expression through precise interactions of hundreds of DNA-binding proteins. A predictive understanding of bacterial physiology requires us to globally monitor all such protein-DNA interactions across a range of environmental and genetic perturbations. Here, we show that such global observations are possible using a modification of in vivo protein occupancy display technology (IPOD-HR) applied to E. coli. We observe that the E. coli protein-DNA interactome organizes into two distinct prototypic features: (1) highly dynamic condition-dependent transcription factor occupancy by dedicated transcriptional regulators, and (2) condition-invariant kilobase scale occupancy by nucleoid factors, forming silencing domains analogous to eukaryotic heterochromatin. We show that occupancy dynamics across a range of conditions can rapidly reveal the global transcriptional regulatory organization of a bacterium. Beyond discovery of previously hidden regulatory logic, we show that these observations can be utilized to computationally determine sequence-specificity models for the majority of active transcription factors. Our study demonstrates that global observations of protein occupancy combined with statistical inference can rapidly and systematically reveal the transcriptional regulatory and structural features of a bacterial genome. This capacity is particularly crucial for non-model bacteria which are not amenable to routine genetic manipulation.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document