large prospective cohort
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Erik Stenberg ◽  
Luiz Fernando dos Reis Falcão ◽  
Mary O’Kane ◽  
Ronald Liem ◽  
Dimitri J. Pournaras ◽  

Abstract Background This is the second updated Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society guideline, presenting a consensus for optimal perioperative care in bariatric surgery and providing recommendations for each ERAS item within the ERAS® protocol. Methods A principal literature search was performed utilizing the Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases and through December 2020, with particular attention paid to meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and large prospective cohort studies. Selected studies were examined, reviewed and graded according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. After critical appraisal of these studies, the group of authors reached consensus regarding recommendations. Results The quality of evidence for many ERAS interventions remains relatively low in a bariatric setting and evidence-based practices may need to be extrapolated from other surgeries. Conclusion A comprehensive, updated evidence-based consensus was reached and is presented in this review by the ERAS® Society.

2022 ◽  
Vol 159 ◽  
pp. 107028
Allyson M. Gregoire ◽  
Trang VoPham ◽  
Francine Laden ◽  
Rina Yarosh ◽  
Katie M. O'Brien ◽  

Helga E. Laszlo ◽  
Edward Seward ◽  
Ruth M. Ayling ◽  
Jennifer Lake ◽  
Aman Malhi ◽  

Abstract Background We evaluated whether faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) can rule out colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients presenting with ‘high-risk’ symptoms requiring definitive investigation. Methods Three thousand five hundred and ninety-six symptomatic patients referred to the standard urgent CRC pathway were recruited in a multi-centre observational study. They completed FIT in addition to standard investigations. CRC miss rate (percentage of CRC cases with low quantitative faecal haemoglobin [f-Hb] measurement) and specificity (percentage of patients without cancer with low f-Hb) were calculated. We also provided an updated literature review. Results Ninety patients had CRC. At f-Hb < 10 µg/g, the miss rate was 16.7% (specificity 80.1%). At f-Hb < 4 µg/g, the miss rate was 12.2% (specificity 73%), which became 3.3% if low FIT plus the absence of anaemia and abdominal pain were considered (specificity 51%). Within meta-analyses of 9 UK studies, the pooled miss rate was 7.2% (specificity 74%) for f-Hb < 4 µg/g. Discussion FIT alone as a triage tool would miss an estimated 1 in 8 cases in our study (1 in 14 from meta-analysis), while many people without CRC could avoid investigations. FIT can focus secondary care diagnostic capacity on patients most at risk of CRC, but more work on safety netting is required before incorporating FIT triage into the urgent diagnostic pathway.

Ahizechukwu C. Eke

Abstract For many years, the medical community has relied in clinical practice on historic data about the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. However, some newer studies have disputed a number of assumptions in these data for not being evidence-based or derived from large prospective cohort-studies. Accurate knowledge of these physiological changes is important for three reasons: Firstly, it facilitates correct diagnosis of diseases during pregnancy; secondly, it enables us to answer questions about the effects of medication during pregnancy and the ways in which pregnancy alters pharmacokinetic and drug-effects; and thirdly, it allows for proper modeling of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, which are increasingly used to predict gestation-specific changes and drug–drug interactions, as well as develop new knowledge on the mode-of-action of drugs, the mechanisms underlying their interactions, and any adverse effects following drug exposure. This paper reviews new evidence regarding the physiologic changes during pregnancy in relation to existing knowledge.

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