anaerobic growth
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Rim Al Safadi ◽  
Michelle L. Korir ◽  
Shannon D. Manning

Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogenesis is due to Shiga toxin (Stx) production, though variation in virulence has been observed. Clade 8 strains, for instance, were shown to overproduce Stx and were more common among hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. One candidate gene, norV, which encodes a nitric oxide (NO) reductase found in a clade 8 O157:H7 outbreak strain (TW14359), was thought to impact virulence. Hence, we screened for norV in 303 O157 isolates representing multiple clades, examined stx2 expression following NO exposure in TW14359 for comparison to an isogenic mutant (ΔnorV), and evaluated survival in THP-1 derived macrophages. norV was intact in strains representing clades 6–9, whereas a 204 bp deletion was found in clades 2 and 3. During anaerobic growth, NO induced stx2 expression in TW14359. A similar increase in stx2 expression was observed for the ΔnorV mutant in anaerobiosis, though it was not impaired in its ability to survive within macrophages relative to TW14359. Altogether, these data suggest that NO enhances virulence by inducing Stx2 production in TW14359, and that toxin production is inhibited by NorV encoded by a gene found in most clade 8 strains. The mechanism linked to these responses, however, remains unclear and likely varies across genotypes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Jonna Bouwknegt ◽  
Charlotte C. Koster ◽  
Aurin M. Vos ◽  
Raúl A. Ortiz-Merino ◽  
Mats Wassink ◽  

Abstract Background In most fungi, quinone-dependent Class-II dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) are essential for pyrimidine biosynthesis. Coupling of these Class-II DHODHs to mitochondrial respiration makes their in vivo activity dependent on oxygen availability. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and closely related yeast species harbor a cytosolic Class-I DHOD (Ura1) that uses fumarate as electron acceptor and thereby enables anaerobic pyrimidine synthesis. Here, we investigate DHODs from three fungi (the Neocallimastigomycete Anaeromyces robustus and the yeasts Schizosaccharomyces japonicus and Dekkera bruxellensis) that can grow anaerobically but, based on genome analysis, only harbor a Class-II DHOD. Results Heterologous expression of putative Class-II DHOD-encoding genes from fungi capable of anaerobic, pyrimidine-prototrophic growth (Arura9, SjURA9, DbURA9) in an S. cerevisiae ura1Δ strain supported aerobic as well as anaerobic pyrimidine prototrophy. A strain expressing DbURA9 showed delayed anaerobic growth without pyrimidine supplementation. Adapted faster growing DbURA9-expressing strains showed mutations in FUM1, which encodes fumarase. GFP-tagged SjUra9 and DbUra9 were localized to S. cerevisiae mitochondria, while ArUra9, whose sequence lacked a mitochondrial targeting sequence, was localized to the yeast cytosol. Experiments with cell extracts showed that ArUra9 used free FAD and FMN as electron acceptors. Expression of SjURA9 in S. cerevisiae reproducibly led to loss of respiratory competence and mitochondrial DNA. A cysteine residue (C265 in SjUra9) in the active sites of all three anaerobically active Ura9 orthologs was shown to be essential for anaerobic activity of SjUra9 but not of ArUra9. Conclusions Activity of fungal Class-II DHODs was long thought to be dependent on an active respiratory chain, which in most fungi requires the presence of oxygen. By heterologous expression experiments in S. cerevisiae, this study shows that phylogenetically distant fungi independently evolved Class-II dihydroorotate dehydrogenases that enable anaerobic pyrimidine biosynthesis. Further structure–function studies are required to understand the mechanistic basis for the anaerobic activity of Class-II DHODs and an observed loss of respiratory competence in S. cerevisiae strains expressing an anaerobically active DHOD from Sch. japonicus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kay Andrin Gränicher ◽  
Lamprini Karygianni ◽  
Thomas Attin ◽  
Thomas Thurnheer

The self-produced matrix of biofilms, consisting of extracellular polymeric substances, plays an important role in biofilm adhesion to surfaces and the structural integrity of biofilms. In dentistry, biofilms cause multiple diseases such as caries, periodontitis, and pulpitis. Disruption of these biofilms adhering to dental hard tissues may pose a major challenge since biofilms show higher tolerance to antimicrobials and antibiotics than planktonic cells. In this study, the effect of low concentrations of chlorhexidine (CHX) on enzyme-treated multispecies oral biofilm was investigated in an in vitro model. Six-species biofilms were enzymatically treated by anaerobic growth in a medium containing DNase I and proteinase K. Biofilms were exposed to a low concentration of CHX at defined time points. After 64h, biofilms were either harvested and quantified by cultural analyses or stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analyses using either Live/Dead kit or different fluorescent dyes. A mixture of YoPro1 and SYTOX™ Green, Fluorescent Brightener 28 (Calcofluor), and SYPRO™ Ruby Protein Gel Stain was used to stain total DNA, exopolysaccharides, and extracellular proteins, respectively. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) was visualized via an indirect immunofluorescence assay (Mouse anti-DNA IgG, Goat anti-Mouse IgG, Streptavidin-Cy3). Overall, the total colony-forming units significantly decreased after combined treatment with a low concentration of CHX and enzymes compared to the group treated with CHX alone (p<0.001). These findings also apply to five species individually (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces oris, Veillonella dispar, and Candida albicans) occurring in the biofilms, with Fusobacterium nucleatum being the only exception. Furthermore, CLSM images showed less dense biofilms and a reduction in cell numbers after combined treatment compared to the group without enzymes. The combination of enzymes capable of disturbing the matrix integrity with antimicrobial agents thus appears to be a promising approach for biofilm disruption and killing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Feng Zhao ◽  
Yuting Wu ◽  
Qingzhi Wang ◽  
Mengyao Zheng ◽  
Qingfeng Cui

Abstract Background The anaerobic production of rhamnolipids is significant in research and application, such as foamless fermentation and in situ production of rhamnolipids in the anoxic environments. Although a few studies reported that some rare Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains can produce rhamnolipids anaerobically, the decisive factors for anaerobic production of rhamnolipids were unknown. Results Two possible hypotheses on the decisive factors for anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa were proposed, the strains specificity of rare P. aeruginosa (hypothesis 1) and the effect of specific substrates (hypothesis 2). This study assessed the anaerobic growth and rhamnolipids synthesis of three P. aeruginosa strains using different substrates. P. aeruginosa strains anaerobically grew well using all the tested substrates, but glycerol was the only carbon source that supported anaerobic production of rhamnolipids. Other carbon sources with different concentrations still failed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa. Nitrate was the excellent nitrogen source for anaerobic production of rhamnolipids. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed the anaerobically produced rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa using glycerol. The anaerobically produced rhamnolipids decreased air-water surface tension to below 29.0 mN/m and emulsified crude oil with EI24 above 65%. Crude glycerol and 1, 2-propylene glycol also supported the anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by all P. aeruginosa strains. Prospects and bottlenecks to anaerobic production of rhamnolipids were also discussed. Conclusions Glycerol substrate was the decisive factor for anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa. Strain specificity resulted in the different anaerobic yield of rhamnolipids. Crude glycerol was one low cost substrate for anaerobic biosynthesis of rhamnolipids by P. aeruginosa. Results help advance the research on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids, deepen the biosynthesis theory of rhamnolipids and optimize the anaerobic production of rhamnolipids.

Magali Roger ◽  
Thomas C. P. Reed ◽  
Frank Sargent

Escherichia coli is gram-negative bacterium that is a workhorse for biotechnology. The organism naturally performs a mixed-acid fermentation under anaerobic conditions where it synthesises formate hydrogenlyase (FHL-1). The physiological role of the enzyme is the disproportionation of formate in to H 2 and CO 2 . However, the enzyme has been observed to catalyse hydrogenation of CO 2 given the correct conditions, and so has possibilities in bio-based carbon capture and storage if it can be harnessed as a hydrogen-dependent CO 2 -reductase (HDCR). In this study, an E. coli host strain was engineered for the continuous production of formic acid from H 2 and CO 2 during bacterial growth in a pressurised batch bioreactor. Incorporation of tungsten, in place of molybdenum, in FHL-1 helped to impose a degree of catalytic bias on the enzyme. This work demonstrates that it is possible to couple cell growth to simultaneous, unidirectional formate production from carbon dioxide and develops a process for growth under pressurised gases. IMPORTANCE Greenhouse gas emissions, including waste carbon dioxide, are contributing to global climate change. A basket of solutions is needed to steadily reduce emissions, and one approach is bio-based carbon capture and storage. Here we present out latest work on harnessing a novel biological solution for carbon capture. The Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase (FHL-1) was engineered to be constitutively expressed. Anaerobic growth under pressurised H 2 and CO 2 gases was established and aqueous formic acid was produced as a result. Incorporation of tungsten in to the enzyme in place of molybdenum proved useful in poising FHL-1 as a hydrogen-dependent CO 2 reductase (HDCR).

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yavuz Öztürk ◽  
Crysten E. Blaby-Haas ◽  
Noel Daum ◽  
Andreea Andrei ◽  
Juna Rauch ◽  

Copper (Cu) is an essential cofactor required for redox enzymes in all domains of life. Because of its toxicity, tightly controlled mechanisms ensure Cu delivery for cuproenzyme biogenesis and simultaneously protect cells against toxic Cu. Many Gram-negative bacteria contain extracytoplasmic multicopper oxidases (MCOs), which are involved in periplasmic Cu detoxification. MCOs are unique cuproenzymes because their catalytic center contains multiple Cu atoms, which are required for the oxidation of Cu1+ to the less toxic Cu2+. Hence, Cu is both substrate and essential cofactor of MCOs. Here, we investigated the maturation of Rhodobacter capsulatus MCO CutO and its role in periplasmic Cu detoxification. A survey of CutO activity of R. capsulatus mutants with known defects in Cu homeostasis and in the maturation of the cuproprotein cbb3-type cytochrome oxidase (cbb3-Cox) was performed. This revealed that CutO activity is largely independent of the Cu-delivery pathway for cbb3-Cox biogenesis, except for the cupric reductase CcoG, which is required for full CutO activity. The most pronounced decrease of CutO activity was observed with strains lacking the cytoplasmic Cu chaperone CopZ, or the Cu-exporting ATPase CopA, indicating that CutO maturation is linked to the CopZ-CopA mediated Cu-detoxification pathway. Our data demonstrate that CutO is important for cellular Cu resistance under both aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. CutO is encoded in the cutFOG operon, but only CutF, and not CutG, is essential for CutO activity. No CutO activity is detectable when cutF or its putative Cu-binding motif are mutated, suggesting that the cutF product serves as a Cu-binding component required for active CutO production. Bioinformatic analyses of CutF-like proteins support their widespread roles as putative Cu-binding proteins for several Cu-relay pathways. Our overall findings show that the cytoplasmic CopZ-CopA dependent Cu detoxification pathway contributes to providing Cu to CutO maturation, a process that strictly relies on cutF.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Fella Hamitouche ◽  
Jean-Charles Gaillard ◽  
Philippe Schmitt ◽  
Jean Armengaud ◽  
Catherine Duport ◽  

Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a notorious foodborne pathogen, which can grow under anoxic conditions. Anoxic growth is supported by endogenous redox metabolism, for which the thiol redox proteome serves as an interface. Here, we studied the cysteine (Cys) proteome dynamics of B. cereus ATCC 14579 cells grown under fermentative anoxic conditions. We used a quantitative thiol trapping method combined with proteomics profiling. Results In total, we identified 153 reactive Cys residues in 117 proteins participating in various cellular processes and metabolic pathways, including translation, carbohydrate metabolism, and stress response. Of these reactive Cys, 72 were detected as reduced Cys. The B. cereus Cys proteome evolved during growth both in terms of the number of reduced Cys and the Cys-containing proteins identified, reflecting its growth-phase-dependence. Interestingly, the reduced status of the B. cereus thiol proteome increased during growth, concomitantly to the decrease of extracellular oxidoreduction potential. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that the B. cereus Cys proteome during unstressed fermentative anaerobic growth is a dynamic entity and provide an important foundation for future redox proteomic studies in B. cereus and other organisms.

2021 ◽  
Robert W. Murdoch ◽  
Gao Chen ◽  
Fadime Kara Murdoch ◽  
E. Erin Mack ◽  
Manuel I. Villalobos Solis ◽  

AbstractAnthropogenic activities and natural processes release dichloromethane (DCM), a toxic chemical with substantial ozone-depleting capacity. Specialized anaerobic bacteria metabolize DCM; however, the genetic basis for this process has remained elusive. Comparative genomics of the three known anaerobic DCM-degrading bacterial species revealed a homologous gene cluster, designated the methylene chloride catabolism (mec) gene cassette, comprising eight to ten genes with predicted 79.6 – 99.7% amino acid identity. Functional annotation identified genes encoding a corrinoid-dependent methyltransferase system, and shotgun proteomics applied to two DCM-catabolizing cultures revealed high expression of proteins encoded on the mec gene cluster during anaerobic growth with DCM. In a DCM-contaminated groundwater plume, the abundance of mec genes strongly correlated with DCM concentrations (R2 = 0.71 – 0.85) indicating their value as process-specific bioremediation biomarkers. mec gene clusters were identified in metagenomes representing peat bogs, the deep subsurface, and marine ecosystems including oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), suggesting DCM turnover in diverse habitats. The broad distribution of anaerobic DCM catabolic potential suggests a relevant control function for emissions to the atmosphere, and a role for DCM as a microbial energy source in critical zone environments. The findings imply that the global DCM flux might be far greater than emission measurements suggest.ImportanceDichloromethane (DCM) is an increasing threat to stratospheric ozone with both anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism of DCM has not yet been taken into consideration as a factor in the global DCM cycle. The discovery of the mec gene cassette associated with anaerobic bacterial DCM metabolism and its widespread distribution in environmental systems highlight a strong attenuation potential for DCM. Knowledge of the mec cassette offers new opportunities to delineate DCM sources, enables more robust estimates of DCM fluxes, supports refined DCM emission modeling and simulation of the stratospheric ozone layer, reveals a novel, ubiquitous C1 carbon metabolic system, and provides prognostic and diagnostic tools supporting bioremediation of groundwater aquifers impacted by DCM.

2021 ◽  
Zhe Zeng ◽  
Lucas M. Wijnands ◽  
Sjef Boeren ◽  
Eddy J. Smid ◽  
Richard A. Notebaart ◽  

Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative anaerobe which can cause a severe food-borne infection known as listeriosis. Rhamnose is a deoxyhexose sugar abundant in a range of environments, including the human intestine, and can be degraded by L. monocytogenes in aerobic and anaerobic conditions into lactate, acetate and 1,2-propanediol. Our previous study showed that addition of vitamin B12 stimulates anaerobic growth of L. monocytogenes on rhamnose due to the activation of bacterial microcompartment (BMC)-dependent 1,2-propanediol utilization with concomitant production of propionate and propanol. Notably, anaerobic propanediol metabolism has been linked to virulence of enteric pathogens including Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. In this study we investigate the impact of B12 on aerobic and anerobic growth of L. monocytogenes on rhamnose, and observed growth stimulation and pdu BMC activation only in anaerobically grown cells with B12 added to the medium. Comparative Caco-2 virulence assays, showed that these pdu BMC induced cells have significantly higher translocation efficiency compared to aerobically grown cells (without and with added B12) and non-induced anaerobically grown cells, while adhesion and invasion capacity is similar for all cells. Comparative proteomics analysis showed specific and overlapping responses linked to metabolic shifts, activation of stress defense proteins and virulence factors, with RNA polymerase sigma factor SigL; teichoic acids export ATP-binding protein, TagH; DNA repair and protection proteins RadA and DPS; and glutathione synthase GshAB previously linked to activation of virulence response in L. monocytogenes, uniquely upregulated in anaerobically rhamnose grown pdu BMC induced cells. Our results shed new light into B12 impact on L. monocytogenes competitive fitness and virulence.

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