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2022 ◽  
pp. 003335492110655
Chloe A. Teasdale ◽  
Luisa N. Borrell ◽  
Yanhan Shen ◽  
Spencer Kimball ◽  
Michael L. Rinke ◽  

Objectives: Testing remains critical for identifying pediatric cases of COVID-19 and as a public health intervention to contain infections. We surveyed US parents to measure the proportion of children tested for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic, preferred testing venues for children, and acceptability of school-based COVID-19 testing. Methods: We conducted an online survey of 2074 US parents of children aged ≤12 years in March 2021. We applied survey weights to generate national estimates, and we used Rao–Scott adjusted Pearson χ2 tests to compare incidence by selected sociodemographic characteristics. We used Poisson regression models with robust SEs to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of pediatric testing. Results: Among US parents, 35.9% reported their youngest child had ever been tested for COVID-19. Parents who were female versus male (aRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.79), Asian versus non-Hispanic White (aRR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87), and from the Midwest versus the Northeast (aRR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91) were less likely to report testing of a child. Children who had health insurance versus no health insurance (aRR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05-1.81), were attending in-person school/daycare versus not attending (aRR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.43-1.95), and were from households with annual household income ≥$100 000 versus income <$50 000-$99 999 (aRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.40) were more likely to have tested for COVID-19. Half of parents (52.7%) reported the pediatrician’s office as the most preferred testing venue, and 50.6% said they would allow their youngest child to be tested for COVID-19 at school/daycare if required. Conclusions: Greater efforts are needed to ensure access to COVID-19 testing for US children, including those without health insurance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Romulus J. Castelo ◽  
Alyssa S. Meuwissen ◽  
Rebecca Distefano ◽  
Megan M. McClelland ◽  
Ellen Galinsky ◽  

Although previous work has linked parent autonomy support to the development of children’s executive function (EF) skills, the role of specific autonomy-supportive behaviors has not been thoroughly investigated. We compiled data from four preschool-age samples in the Midwestern United States (N = 366; M age = 44.26 months; 72% non-Hispanic White, 19% Black/African American, 5% Multiracial) to examine three relevant autonomy-supportive behaviors (supporting competence, positive verbalizations, and offering choice) and their associations with child EF. We coded parent autonomy-supportive behaviors from a 10-min interaction between parent and child dyads working on challenging jigsaw puzzles together. Children completed a battery of EF. Overall, child EF was most consistently correlated with the offering choice subscale. Additionally, only the offering choice subscale predicted child EF while controlling for the other autonomy support subscales and child age. These results suggest that parent provision of choice is an especially relevant aspect of autonomy-supportive parenting and may be important to the development of EF in early childhood. Future research should directly measure children’s experience with choice and how it relates to emerging EF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Allison S. Komorowski ◽  
Tarun Jain

AbstractHispanic women have lower rates of use of infertility services than non-Hispanic White women. There are many barriers that impede access to infertility care including economic, geographic, cultural, and societal factors and there are disparities in treatment outcomes. Hispanic women are less likely to seek infertility care than non-Hispanic White women and even after infertility evaluation, Hispanic women are less likely to receive treatment for their infertility. Lower use of infertility treatments among Hispanic women is unlikely to be driven solely by economic factors. There is disappointingly little data on in-vitro fertilization treatment outcomes including the population of Hispanic women, and existing data has yielded conflicting results. Incomplete and variable reporting of race data across clinics raises the potential for misclassification bias and invalid study conclusions. Addressing disparities in access to reproductive medicine in the Hispanic population will required a multifaceted approach including expanded insurance coverage, improved education for both patients and providers, and additional research on barriers to care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 215013192110658
Laura J. Samander ◽  
Jeffrey Harman

Purpose The primary purpose of this article was to determine if race and ethnicity played a role in if primary care physicians offered anxiety treatment in office visits by adult patients who were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder(s). Methods This study pooled data from the 2011 to 2018 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) that included adult patients with an anxiety disorder and the type of treatment offered to them. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the odds of offered anxiety treatment in office visits by non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and other race/ethnicity patients compared to office visits by non-Hispanic White patients. Results Physicians offered anxiety treatment in more than half of office visits where the patient was diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Providers offered counseling or talk therapy in less than 13% of all office visits. Office visits by non-Hispanic Black patients had half the odds of being offered counseling/talk therapy ( P = .068) compared to those by non-Hispanic White patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that statistically significant differences in the offering of any anxiety treatments in office visits to minorities compared to non-Hispanic White patients do not exist; however, there are still differences in the rates of counseling/talk therapy offered in office visits by minorities versus non-minorities. Future studies may want to examine reasons for lower rates of counseling/talk therapy offered to minority and majority patients and the specific pharmacological or therapeutic treatments offered to different races.

2021 ◽  
Nathaniel Bell ◽  
Bo Cai ◽  
John Brooks ◽  
Ana Lòpez-DeFede

Abstract BackgroundThe ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as well as a host of social movements have put a nation-sized spotlight on structural inequality and racial disparities in health throughout America. As health care systems begin to advance health equity by holding plans and payers accounting for racial and socioeconomic disparities in care, quantitative methods are needed that emphasize the distinct linkages between physical locations and racially disparate outcomes.MethodsWe apply a counterfactual model to compare differences in avoidable and potentially avoidable emergency department (ED) admissions among a panel of 8,924 non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic Medicaid participants between 2016 - 2018. The magnitude of disparity estimates is examined in relation to geographic proximity to health care providers, neighborhood socioeconomic contexts, as well as the type of primary care delivery model individuals received. The adjusted rates were assessed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) and average marginal effects models to contrast differences in probability of events in association with race/ethnicity, proximity to care, and treatment through patient-centered medical homes (PCMH). ResultsAttending a patient-centered medical home was associated with a 3.4 percentage point (p <0.001) decrease in Black-White racial disparity and a 1.8 percentage point (p < 0.10) reduction in the overall Black-White disparity for potentially avoidable ED admissions. PCMH attendance was attributed to a 2.6 percentage point (p < 0.10) reduction in Hispanic-White disparities in potentially avoidable admissions, but this difference was not substantial enough to curb the overall Hispanic-White racial disparity in ED admissions. No statistically significant reductions in Black-White or Hispanic-White disparities in avoidable ED admissions were observed. ConclusionMedical homes may be able to curb, but not necessarily eliminate, racial disparities in ED admissions. Counterfactual models of health disparities are in line with recent transitions toward evaluating patient- and value-centered health care reform changes as they are designed to measure health and racial equity. This strategy, or variations of it, are adaptable to other investigations where emphasis on physical locations is considered essential to understanding racial disparities in health outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 15-23
Lydia Lo ◽  
Jaya Satagopan

South Asian American (SA) women are diagnosed with more aggressive breast cancer than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. Understanding the factors associated with the types of surgery received by these women sheds light on disease management in these culturally distinct populations. We used data on age at diagnosis, stage, grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and surgery from 4,590 SA and 429,030 NHW breast cancer cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. We used logistic regression with surgery as the binary outcome (subcutaneous, total, or radical mastectomy (STRM) versus partial mastectomy, no, unknown or other (PNUM)) and included additive effects of all the variables and interactions of age, stage, grade, and estrogen and progesterone receptors with race/ethnicity. Type I error of 5% was used to assess statistical significance of the effects. SA were significantly more likely than NHW cases to receive STRM relative to PNUM surgery among women diagnosed at or after age 50 years and having localized stage disease (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06 – 1.52). Further, SA were significantly less likely than NHW cases to receive STRM relative to PNUM surgery among those diagnosed before age 50 years and having regional or distant stage disease (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59 – 0.95 for age at diagnosis < 40 years; OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.62 – 0.95 for age at diagnosis 40-49 years). The type of surgery received by SA and NHW women differ according to age at diagnosis and disease stage. KEYWORDS: Breast Cancer; Surgery; Cancer Health Equity; Disease Characteristics; South Asian American; Non-Hispanic White; Logistic Regression; Interaction

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Chun Xu ◽  
Debra Garcia ◽  
Yongke Lu ◽  
Kaysie Ozuna ◽  
Donald Adjeroh ◽  

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE1) and apolipoproteins (APOs) may play important roles in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to examine the associations of AD, CVD, and endocrine-metabolic diseases (EMDs) with the levels of ACE1 and 9 APO proteins (ApoAI, ApoAII, ApoAIV, ApoB, ApoCI, ApoCIII, ApoD, ApoE, and ApoH). Non-Hispanic white individuals including 109 patients with AD, 356 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 373 CVD, 198 EMD and controls were selected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) was used to examine the associations. ApoE ε4 allele was associated with AD, as well as ApoAIV, ApoB and ApoE proteins, but not associated with CVD and EMD. Both AD and CVD were associated with levels of ACE1, ApoB, and ApoH proteins. AD, MCI and EMD were associated with levels of ACE1, ApoAII, and ApoE proteins. This is the first study to report associations of ACE1 and several APO proteins with AD, MCI, CVD and EMD, respectively, including upregulated and downregulated protein levels. In conclusion, as specific or shared biomarkers, the levels of ACE1 and APO proteins are implicated for AD, CVD, EMD and ApoE ε4 allele. Further studies are required for validation to establish reliable biomarkers for these health conditions.

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