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2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
Britt Burton-Freeman ◽  
Morganne Freeman ◽  
Xuhuiqun Zhang ◽  
Amandeep Sandhu ◽  
Indika Edirisinghe

Keerthana Rajagopal ◽  
Sujith J. Chandy ◽  
Jay P. Graham

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens to undermine nearly a century of progress since the first use of antimicrobial compounds. There is an increasing recognition of the links between antimicrobial use and AMR in humans, animals, and the environment (i.e., One Health) and the spread of AMR between these domains and around the globe. This systematic review applies a One Health approach—including humans, animals, and the environment—to characterize AMR in Escherichia coli in India. E. coli is an ideal species because it is readily shared between humans and animals, its transmission can be tracked more easily than anaerobes, it can survive and grow outside of the host environment, and it can mobilize AMR genes more easily than other intestinal bacteria. This review synthesized evidence from 38 studies examining antimicrobial-resistant E. coli (AR-E) across India. Studies of AR-E came from 18 states, isolated from different sample sources: Humans (n = 7), animals (n = 7), the environment (n = 20), and combinations of these categories, defined as interdisciplinary (n = 4). Several studies measured the prevalence of AMR in relation to last-line antimicrobials, including carbapenems (n = 11), third-generation cephalosporins (n = 18), and colistin (n = 4). Most studies included only one dimension of the One Health framework, highlighting the need for more studies that aim to characterize the relationship of AMR across different reservoirs of E. coli.

2021 ◽  
pp. 439-450
Debashish Dutta ◽  
Shivarpan Das ◽  
Aritra Nath ◽  
Abhyuday Kaushik ◽  
P. Shobha

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Zumer Arif Jawaid ◽  
Nick Brindle ◽  
Michael Kennedy

SUMMARY It has been common clinical practice for staff members to make an application to a mental health tribunal (the First-tier Tribunal (Mental Health) in England or the Mental Health Review Tribunal in Wales) on behalf of a patient detained in hospital for psychiatric treatment who may lack capacity to make that application, for example in dementia in-patient settings. Following a series of cases in the Upper Tribunal, such practice may not be appropriate and there is now a risk that the application will be struck out. It is important that clinicians are aware of developments in case law and therefore we provide guidance on how clinicians should approach applications to the tribunal and the assessments of capacity that may be required.

Tatyana Bodurska ◽  
Emiliana Konova ◽  
Svetlana Pachkova ◽  
Angel Yordanov

Currently, unlike in the past, the endometrial cavity is not considered to be sterile. The endometrium is supposed to be dominated by Lactobacilli, but also their deficiency can be found in the reproductive tract of asymptomatic healthy women. Sometimes the endometrial microbiome is dominated by various pathological microorganisms, and this can lead to various conditions as chronic endometritis, chorioamnionitis and preterm birth. Their presence causes uterine inflammation and infection, release of pro-inflammatory molecules, uterine contractions, disruption of cervical barrier, premature rupture of membranes. Uterine dysbiosis is associated with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages. As the microbiome is important for maintaining immunological homeostasis at the level of gastrointestinal tract Lactobacilli may play a similar function at the level of uterus. The lactobacillus-dominated uterine microbiome is of great importance for maintaining a hostile uterine microenvironment, embryo implantation, early pregnancy development and normal pregnancy outcome.

Thomas E. Webb

Essential Cases: Public Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in R (on the application of H) v London North and East Region Mental Health Review Tribunal [2001] EWCA Civ 415, Court of Appeal. This case concerned whether the language of ss 72–73 of the Mental Health Act 1983 could be read in such a way as to be compatible with the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA), under s. 4 of that Act, or whether such an interpretation was not possible. In the latter case, the court should consider making a declaration of incompatibility. This note explores s. 4 HRA declarations of incompatibility. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Thomas Webb

2021 ◽  
pp. 000486742110400
Olav Nielssen ◽  
Georgia Lyons ◽  
Katya Oldfield ◽  
Anina Johnson ◽  
Kimberlie Dean ◽  

Objective: To describe the characteristics of offenders found not guilty on the grounds of mental illness (NGMI) in New South Wales and rates of NGMI and other homicide verdicts. Method: Demographic, legal and clinical data after referral to the NSW Mental Health Review Tribunal following an NGMI verdict for homicide matched with results from the National Homicide Monitoring Program. Results: Between 1993 and 2016, a total of 2159 homicide offenders were dealt with by the NSW courts, including 169 (7.8%) who were found NGMI. Over this period, the rate of non-NGMI homicide convictions fell from 1.83 per 100,000 per annum to 0.65 per 100,000 per annum (Kendall’s tau = −0.79, p ⩽ 0.001) while the rate of NGMI homicide fluctuated, with an average annual rate of about 0.1 per 100,000 per annum (Kendall’s tau = 0.17, p = 0.23). There was no association between the annual rates of NGMI and non-NGMI homicides (Pearson r = −0.3, p = 0.16) but falling rate of non-NGMI homicide meant that the proportion of NGMI offences doubled from 5.5% in the first 12 years to 11% in the second 12 years. Nearly all (88.7%) of those found NGMI had a schizophrenia-related psychosis. However, there were high rates of psychiatric comorbidity including substance use disorder (60.7%) and a history of a prior head injury (41.1%). Most (83.4%) of the NGMI offenders had previous contact with mental health services, but only half of these had received treatment with antipsychotic medication. Conclusion: The fall in conviction for homicide offences in the last 24 years has not been matched by a reduction in NGMI homicide verdicts. More assertive treatment of emerging psychosis and comorbid substance use disorders, and improved continuity of care of chronic psychosis might prevent some homicides.

Goulioumis Anastasios ◽  
Gkorpa Magioula ◽  
Kourelis Konstantinos ◽  
Athanasopoulos Ioannis

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (4) ◽  
Ioanna Giannopoulou ◽  
Sofia Galinaki ◽  
Evangelia Kollintza ◽  
Maria Adamaki ◽  
Stylianos Kympouropoulos ◽  

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