Treatment of severe rigid 360° fused cervical kyphosis (CK) is challenging and often requires a combined approach for ankylosis release, establishment of sagittal balance, and fixation with fusion.
Four patients with iatrogenic 360° fused severe rigid CK (Cobb angle ≥40°) were enrolled for this retrospective analysis. All patients in the case series were female, with an average age of 27 years. All patients previously underwent posterior laminectomy/laminoplasty and cervical tumor resection when they were children (13–17 years). They underwent correction surgery with a 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach. Preoperative and final follow-up radiography and computed tomography (CT) were used to evaluate kyphosis correction, internal fixation implants, and bone fusion. The preoperative and final follow-up average C2–7 Cobb angles were −32.4° ± 12.0° and 5.3° ± 7.1°, respectively. Preoperative and final follow-up CK angles averaged −47.2° ± 7.4° and −0.9° ± 16.1°, respectively. The mean correction angle was 46.3° ± 9.6°. At final follow-up, CT showed stable fixation and solid bone fusion.
The rare iatrogenic severe kyphosis with 360° ankylosis requires a combined approach. The 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach can completely release the bony fusion, and the CK can be corrected using an anterior plate. This technique can achieve good results and is an effective strategy.
Daily life activities often require humans to perform locomotion in challenging scenarios. In this context, this study aimed at investigating the effects induced by anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) perturbations on walking. Through this aim, the experimental protocol involved 12 participants who performed three tasks on a treadmill consisting of one unperturbed and two perturbed walking tests. Inertial measurement units were used to gather lower limb kinematics. Parameters related to joint angles, as the range of motion (ROM) and its variability (CoV), as well as the inter-joint coordination in terms of continuous relative phase (CRP) were computed. The AP perturbation seemed to be more challenging causing differences with respect to normal walking in both the variability of the ROM and the CRP amplitude and variability. As ML, only the ankle showed different behavior in terms of joint angle and CRP variability. In both tasks, a shortening of the stance was found. The findings should be considered when implementing perturbed rehabilitative protocols for falling reduction.
Introduction. Studies on the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) changes using three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) have shed more light on patients with Class III than Class II malocclusion. This paper focuses on analyzing the long-term changes in the PAS and evaluating the postoperative association between these PAS and skeletal changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion who have undergone orthognathic surgery. Methods. The records of 21 patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion who had undergone orthognathic surgery were included. The anatomical modifications in both jaws, changes in volume, sectional area (SA), minimum sectional area (MSA), and anterior-posterior (AP) and transverse (TV) width in the airway at one month before surgery (
), and one month (
) and one year (
) after surgery were analyzed using CT images. The association between the skeletal and airway changes was evaluated between
. Results. After surgery, the ANS, A point, and PNS demonstrated significant posterior and superior movement. The B point and the pogonion exhibited substantial anterior and superior movement. The total and inferior oropharyngeal volumes (vol 3, vol 4) notably increased, while the nasopharyngeal volume (vol 1) decreased. The anterior-posterior movement at the ANS and PNS after surgery was significantly associated with the total volume, vol 2, vol 3, SA 1, MSA, and TV width 1, while substantial association with the total volume was found at the pogonion. Conclusion. Thus, an ideal treatment plan can be formulated for patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion by considering the postoperative PAS changes.
Clinical gait analysis supports treatment decisions for patients with motor disorders. Measurement reproducibility is affected by extrinsic errors such as marker misplacement—considered the main factor in gait analysis variability. However, how marker placement affects output kinematics is not completely understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the Conventional Gait Model’s sensitivity to marker placement. Using a dataset of kinematics for 20 children, eight lower-limb markers were virtually displaced by 10 mm in all four planes, and all the displacement combinations were recalculated. Root-mean-square deviation angles were calculated for each simulation with respect to the original kinematics. The marker movements with the greatest impact were for the femoral and tibial wands together with the lateral femoral epicondyle marker when displaced in the anterior–posterior axis. When displaced alone, the femoral wand was responsible for a deviation of 7.3° (± 1.8°) in hip rotation. Transversal plane measurements were affected most, with around 40% of simulations resulting in an effect greater than the acceptable limit of 5°. This study also provided insight into which markers need to be placed very carefully to obtain more reliable gait data.
Neurons form elaborate networks by guiding axons and dendrites to appropriate destinations. Neurites require information about the relative body axes during the initial projection from the cell body, and failure to receive or interpret those cues correctly can result in outgrowth errors. We identified a mutation in the Ig superfamily member syg-2 in a screen for animals with anterior/posterior (A/P) axon guidance defects. We found that syg-2 and its cognate Ig family member syg-1 appear to function in a linear genetic pathway to control the outgrowth of GABAergic axons. We determined that this pathway works in parallel to Wnt signaling. Specifically, mutations in syg-2 or syg-1 selectively affected the embryonically derived Dorsal D-type (DD) GABAergic neurons. We found no evidence that these mutations affected the Ventral D-type neurons (VD) that form later, during the first larval stage. In addition, mutations in syg-1 or syg-2 could result in the DD neurons forming multiple processes, becoming bipolar, rather than the expected pseudounipolar morphology. Given SYG-2′s essential function in synaptogenesis of the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), we also examined DD neuron synapses in syg-2 mutants. We found syg-2 mutants had a decreased number of synapses formed, but synaptic morphology was largely normal. These results provide further evidence that the GABAergic motorneurons use multiple guidance pathways during development.
Hox genes have been known for specifying the anterior-posterior axis (AP) in bilaterian body plans. Studies in vertebrates have shown their importance in developing region-specific neural circuitry and diversifying motor neuron pools. In Drosophila, they are instrumental for segment-specific neurogenesis and myogenesis early in development. Their robust expression in differentiated neurons implied their role in assembling region-specific neuromuscular networks. In the last decade, studies in Drosophila have unequivocally established that Hox genes go beyond their conventional functions of generating cellular diversity along the AP axis of the developing central nervous system. These roles range from establishing and maintaining the neuromuscular networks to controlling their function by regulating the motor neuron morphology and neurophysiology, thereby directly impacting the behavior. Here we summarize the limited knowledge on the role of Drosophila Hox genes in the assembly of region-specific neuromuscular networks and their effect on associated behavior.
Many individual proteins have been identified as having defined positions relative to cell polarity axes, raising the question of what fraction of all proteins may have polarized localizations. We took advantage of the giant ciliate Stentor coeruleus to quantify the extent of polarized localization proteome-wide. This trumpet-shaped unicellular organism shows a clear morphological anterior-posterior axis defined by a circular array of cilia known as a membranellar band at one end, and a holdfast at the other end. Because individual Stentor cells are over a millimeter in length, we were able to cut the cells into three pieces along the anterior-posterior axis, followed by proteomic analysis of proteins enriched in each piece. We find that approximately 30% of all detected proteins show a polarized location relative to the anterior-posterior cell axis. Proteins with polarized enrichment include centrin-like proteins, calcium-regulated kinases, orthologs of SFI1 and GAS2, and proteases. At the organelle level, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins are enriched in the anterior half of the cell body, but not in the membranellar band itself, while ribosome related proteins are apparently uniformly distributed. RNAi of signaling proteins enriched in the membranellar band, which is the anterior-most structure in the cell, revealed a protein phosphatase 2 subunit b ortholog required for closure of the membranellar band into the ring shape characteristic of Stentor. These results suggest that a large fraction of the Stentor proteome has a polarized localization, and provide a protein-level framework for future analysis of pattern formation and regeneration in Stentor as well as defining a general strategy for subcellular spatial proteomics based on physical dissection of cells.
To evaluate the precision of corneal higher-order aberrations measurements after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) using the Sirius Scheimpflug-Placido topographer (CSO, Italy).
Seventy-five eyes from 75 postoperative subjects were included in this prospective study. Three consecutive corneal aberrometric measurements were obtained with the Scheimpflug-Placido topographer by two experienced operators to assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. The within-subject standard deviation (Sw), test-retest repeatability (TRT) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated.
For intraobserver repeatability of anterior and total corneal aberrations, all ICCs were more than 0.922, except for trefoil (0.722 to 0.768). The ICCs of total root mean square (RMS), coma Z (3, ± 1), and spherical aberration Z (4, 0) were over 0.810 while higher-order RMS, trefoil Z (3, ± 3), and astigmatism II Z (4, ± 2) were below 0.634 for posterior corneal surface aberrations. All Sw values for all types of aberrations were equal to or below 0.07 μm. Regarding interobserver reproducibility, all TRT values were no more than 0.12 μm, 0.05 μm, and 0.11 μm for anterior, posterior, and total corneal aberrations, respectively. The ICC values ranged from 0.875 to 0.989, from 0.686 to 0.976 and over 0.834 for anterior, posterior, and total corneal aberrations, respectively.
The repeatability of measurements of anterior and total corneal aberrations with the Sirius system in corneas after SMILE surgery was high, except for trefoil. There was some variability in posterior corneal aberrometric measurements. High reproducibility of corneal aberrometric measurements was observed between measurements of both examiners, except for trefoil, with poor to moderate reproducibility.
Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular heart disease where an improper closure leads to leakage from the left ventricle into the left atrium. There is a need for less-invasive treatments such as percutaneous repairs for a large inoperable patient population. The aim of this study is to compare several indirect mitral annuloplasty (IMA) percutaneous repair techniques by finite-element analyses. Two types of generic IMA devices were considered, based on coronary sinus vein shortening (IMA-CS) to reduce the annulus perimeter and based on shortening of the anterior–posterior diameter (IMA-AP). The disease, its treatments, and the heart function post-repair were modelled by modifying the living heart human model (Dassault Systèmes). A functional MR pathology that represents ischaemic MR was generated and the IMA treatments were simulated in it, followed by heart function simulations with the devices and leakage quantification from blood flow simulations. All treatments were able to reduce leakage, the IMA-AP device achieved better sealing, and there was a correlation between the IMA-CS device length and the reduction in leakage. The results of this study can help in bringing IMA-AP to market, expanding the use of IMA devices, and optimizing future designs of such devices.