In many organisms, cytochrome P450 enzymes are the primary detoxifying enzymes. Enhanced P450 activity can be mediated by the emergence of new genes, increased transcription due to mutations in the promoter regions, changes in enzyme structures and functions due to mutations in protein-coding regions, or changes in post-translational modifications; all of these changes are subject to insecticide selection pressure. Multiple signalling pathways and key effector molecules are involved in the regulation of insect P450s. Increased P450 activity is a key mechanism inducing insect resistance. Hence, downregulation of selected P450s is a promising strategy to overcome this resistance. Insect P450 inhibitors that act as insecticide synergists, RNA interference to induce P450 gene silencing, and the use of transgenic insects and crops are examples of strategies utilized to overcome resistance. This article reviews the latest advances in studies related to insect P450s-mediated agrochemical resistance, with focuses on the regulatory mechanisms and associated pest management strategies. Future investigations on the comprehensive regulatory pathways of P450-mediated detoxification, identification of key effectors, and downregulation strategies for P450s will ecologically, economically, and practically improve pest management.
Pharmacotherapy in patients with comorbidity is a current issue for clinical practice. Combination of hypertension and musculoskeletal diseases can be found in 40% of outpatients, which requires simultaneous administration of different drugs. The main mechanisms of drug interactions are associated with pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics alterations. It has been proven that changes in drugs pharmacokinetics can be due to cytochromes P450 activity. The main symptom of musculoskeletal diseases is chronic pain, which requires long-term therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The 2C19 isoenzyme takes part in metabolism of some NSAIDs. Losartan, the inhibitor of renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS), is also metabolized by the 2C9 isoenzyme and is quite often prescribed to outpatients to treat hypertension. Hence, an influence of genetic factors on efficacy and safety of antihypertensive drugs and NSAIDs combinations requires further studies.
AbstractCytochromes P450 catalyze oxidation of chemically diverse compounds and thus offer great potential for biocatalysis. Due to the complexity of these enzymes, their dependency of nicotinamide cofactors and redox partner proteins, recombinant microbial whole cells appear most appropriate for effective P450-mediated biocatalysis. However, some drawbacks exist that require individual solutions also when P450 whole-cell catalysts are used. Herein, we compared wet resting cells and lyophilized cells of recombinant E. coli regarding P450-catalyzed oxidation and found out that lyophilized cells are well-appropriate as P450-biocatalysts. E. coli harboring CYP105D from Streptomyces platensis DSM 40041 was used as model enzyme and testosterone as model substrate. Conversion was first enhanced by optimized handling of resting cells. Co-expression of the alcohol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis for cofactor regeneration did not affect P450 activity of wet resting cells (46% conversion) but was crucial to obtain sufficient P450 activity with lyophilized cells reaching a conversion of 72% under the same conditions. The use of recombinant lyophilized E. coli cells for P450 mediated oxidations is a promising starting point towards broader application of these enzymes.
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play a key role in pest resistance to insecticides by detoxification. Four new P450 genes, CYP6AS160, CYP6AS161, CYP4AB73 and CYP4G232 were identified from Solenopsis invicta. CYP6AS160 was highly expressed in the abdomen and its expression could be induced significantly with exposure to fipronil, whereas CYP4AB73 was not highly expressed in the abdomen and its expression could not be significantly induced following exposure to fipronil. Expression levels of CYP6AS160 and CYP4AB73 in workers were significantly higher than that in queens. RNA interference-mediated gene silencing by feeding on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) found that the levels of this transcript decreased (by maximum to 64.6%) when they fed on CYP6AS160-specific dsRNA. Workers fed dsCYP6AS160 had significantly higher mortality after 24 h of exposure to fipronil compared to controls. Workers fed dsCYP6AS160 had reduced total P450 activity of microsomal preparations toward model substrates p-nitroanisole. However, the knockdown of a non-overexpressed P450 gene, CYP4AB73 did not lead to an increase of mortality or a decrease of total P450 activity. The knockdown effects of CYP6AS160 on worker susceptibility to fipronil, combined with our other findings, indicate that CYP6AS160 is responsible for detoxification of fipronil. Feeding insects dsRNA may be a general strategy to trigger RNA interference and may find applications in entomological research and in the control of insect pests in the field.