Veterinary Drug
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Michel Mainack Dione ◽  
Winfred Christine Amia ◽  
Francis Ejobi ◽  
Emily Awuor Ouma ◽  
Barbara Wieland

This study assessed the veterinary drug supply chain in Uganda, the constraints faced by the actors, and how the challenges influence the use of antimicrobial (AMs) by livestock farmers. We carried out stakeholder consultation workshops, key informant interviews and a knowledge, practices, and awareness survey with actors of the veterinary drug supply chain. We also profiled drugs stored in 23 urban and peri-urban drug shops in Lira and Mukono districts to record the commonly sold drugs. The veterinary drug supply chain is made of several actors including wholesalers, retailers, Animal Health Service Providers (AHSP) and farmers. Nearly ninety per cent of drug retailers and veterinary practitioners did not receive specialized training in veterinary medicine, and most of veterinary practitioners have been in the drug business market for more than 10 years. Antibiotics and anti-helminthics were the most stocked drugs by retailers, with antibiotics ranking highest in terms of contribution to annual financial profits, accounting for 33%. The choice of a drug by veterinary practitioners was mainly informed by past success with efficacy of the drug, and financial capacity of the client (the farmer) to meet the treatment cost. Many veterinary practitioners were not conversant with veterinary drug policies of the country, with Mukono having a higher number (72%) compared to Lira (37%). Veterinary practitioners from Lira district compared to Mukono and those mainly serving small scale farmers relative to large scale smallholders were more knowledgeable about antibiotics and AMR. Several supply chain constraints were identified as potential drivers of misuse of antibiotics that could contribute to AMR. These included low level of education of supply chain actors, particularly drug retailers, poor handling of drugs at purchase and administration practices, low enforcement of policies and regulations, and lack of awareness of stakeholders about policies that regulate drug use. Thus, future interventions to reduce misuse of AM drugs in livestock production systems in Uganda such as capacity building, should also target veterinary input suppliers, and deliberately involve a strong policy advocacy component.

2021 ◽  
Vol 117 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Helena BAŠA ČESNIK ◽  
Veronika KMECL

A survey on concentrations of veterinary drug residues amitraz, coumaphos and thymol in honey, produced in year 2020 by Slovenian beekeepers, was conducted. 100 samples were analysed: 22 from organic and 78 from conventional production, with two analytical methods. In method for determination of coumaphos and thymol samples were extracted with acetone, petroleumether and dichlorometane. In method for determination of amitraz and its degradation products, samples were hydrolisated with HCl and NaOH, extractied with n-hexane and derivatisated with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Determination in both methods was performed with gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Measured concentrations of amitraz, coumaphos and thymol were in the range of 0.01-0.12 mg kg-1, 0.02-0.06 mg kg-1 and 0.08-0.17 mg kg-1, respectively. In 61 % of samples analysed no residues of amitraz, thymol and coumaphos were found. Data obtained were compared with the data from literature. Chronic and acute exposure were calculated for consumers. Maximum chronic exposure for amitraz and thymol was 0.1 % and 0.05 % of acceptable daily intake, respectively. Maximum acute exposure for amitraz and thymol was 4 % and 0.8 % of acute reference dose, respectively

2021 ◽  
pp. 1650-1664
Jagdish Kumar Parmar ◽  
Kundan Kumar Chaubey ◽  
Vikas Gupta ◽  
Manthena Nava Bharath

The veterinary drugs are broad-spectrum antibacterial antibiotics; it uses to cure the animal disease. Many countries have banned veterinary drug residues like nitrofurans metabolites, chloramphenicol. However, the people were administrated veterinary drugs to animals as illegal to increase the milk production in animals for economic benefit. The results of illegally use of veterinary drugs remain as a residue in animal product like milk and it is very harmful to whom consume it cause cancer and allergic for human being which has entered the concern among milk consumers. To control illegal use of veterinary drugs, the government of India has restricted its use in animals. For the identification and confirmation of veterinary drug residues in animal products, analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry are available. These are very sophisticated equipments which are available nowadays and their methodologies for the analytical method validation are described by European commission 2002/657/EC. The use of veterinary drugs is a big challenge to effectively identify and authorization of their use. There are so many analytical techniques are using very effectively and taking very less time to protect the consumers from their adverse effects. These techniques take very less time to identify more groups of compounds such as tetracycline, sulfonamides, anthelmintic, and macrolides in single multi-residue method. These methods having validation parameters include system precision, calibration curve, accuracy, limit of detection, and quantification. Therefore, improvement in the existing technologies and accessibility of new screening methodologies will give opportunities for automation that helps in obtaining the results in very less time and improved sensitivity and specificity which contribute to better safety assurance, standard, and quality of various food products of animal origin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-77
Ahmed Jasim Abbas ◽  
Ahmed Issa ◽  
Dhamia Abas ◽  
Nagham Jasim ◽  
Luma Mohammed ◽  

A 100 litter of pharmaceutical formula of veterinary drug Rafoxanide and Levamisole with 6% suspension as pilot production was prepared. The formula contains two active ingredients with a broad spectrum anthelmintic activity. Rafoxanide belong belongs to salicylanilide group used for treatment and control of mature and immature liver flukes in cattle, sheep and goats. Levamisole belongs to Bezimidazole compounds and is active against gastrointestinal worms and against lung worms in cattle, sheep and goats. The drug formula is a white color suspension prepared according to scientific literature. Information was collected for all substances in the formulation for active ingredient ingredients and additives. The chemical assay was carried out on the active ingredients and the final formula and the results showed that they conform to the constitutional specifications. The results of the chemical assay of Rafoxanide (102.7%) and levamisole (101%) were found to be within the approved constitutional limits (90-110%) with the adoption of the results of stability study at temperatures (40, 50, 60 °C). The stability of the pharmaceutical formula was observed within the permissible constitutional limits.

Wentao Zhao ◽  
Rui Jiang ◽  
Wenping Guo ◽  
Chao Guo ◽  
Shilei Li ◽  

AbstractA rapid, simple, and sensitive method of detecting veterinary drug residues in animal food sources, including poultry and pork, was developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 155 veterinary drugs of 21 different classes. Sample pretreatment included a simple solid-liquid extraction step with 0.2% formic acid-acetonitrile-water and a purification step with a PRiME HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance) solid-phase extraction cartridge. Data were collected using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The limits of detection of 155 veterinary drugs ranged from 0.1 µg/kg to 10 µg/kg. The recovery rates were between 79.2 and 118.5 % in all matrices studied, with relative standard deviation values less than 15% (n = 6). The evaluated method allows the reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 155 veterinary drug residues in animal source food and has been successfully applied in authentic samples.

2021 ◽  
pp. 117590
Martina Navrátilová ◽  
Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková ◽  
Petra Matoušková ◽  
Martin Ambrož ◽  
Jiří Lamka ◽  

Caue Sousa Novo ◽  
Amanda Barros ◽  
Vivian Feddern ◽  
Arlei Coldebella ◽  
Gerson Neudi Scheuermann

Brazil chicken production is around 13 million tons and about a third is exported to over 150 countries, placing Brazil as the world largest chicken meat producer, and therefore it is crucial to follow the legislation of all importer markets. This study aimed at evaluating ten chemical residues (amoxicillin, bacitracin, colistin, dinitolmide + zoalene, spectinomycin, roxarsone, tiamulin, tylosin, trenbolone acetate and virginiamycin) in chicken breast and one (halofuginone hydrobromide) in chicken liver. Most of these compounds are not covered by National Residues and Contaminants Control Plan (PNCRC), although they are mandatory to export chicken meat worldwide. A total of 2580 samples were collected from 45 industries and submitted to analyte extraction and chromatographic verification of compliance in an accredited laboratory. The results showed that no compound exceeded the maximum residue limits established by worldwide legislation. All results were below the method detection limit, thereby confirming the capability of Brazilian chicken meat plants in complying to foreign markets. Our results can provide occurrence trends of veterinary drug from poultry products in Brazil.

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