Antihypertensive Activity
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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Author(s):  
Moufida Bouchekrit ◽  
Hocine Laouer ◽  
Yavus Selim Cakmak ◽  
Mohamed Hajji ◽  
Saber Boutellaa ◽  
...  

Objective: The current investigation was conducted to evaluate phenol and flavonoid contents, antibacterial, antioxidant and antihypertensive potentials of three extracts of Margotia gummifera aerial parts. Methods: The antibacterial effect was assessed using wells agar diffusion method against 11 strains. The antioxidant effect was evaluated using different methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. The antihypertensive activity was performed using hippuryl-histidyl-leucine substrates. Results: The highest yield was obtained by hydro-methanolic extract, 19.801 %, however ethyl acetate extract seemed to be rich on phenolic and flavonoid compounds comparing to other extracts, 822.14±69.10 mg GAE g-1 ext. and 117.28±1.80 mg RE g-1 ext., respectively. The high free radical scavenging activity was mentioned in ethyl acetate extract with IC50 of 48.820±1.25 µg/ml. The same extract showed better antioxidant activity in all tested procedures. In antibacterial activity, the hydro-methanolic extract exhibited moderate effect against all tested bacteria except Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis which gave 18±2.0 and 16±1.0 mm of inhibition, whereas, it seemed to be inactive towards two Gram-negative bacteria. Concerning antihypertensive activity, all extracts can inhibit the Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme, but the potential effect was given by hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts, 97.75 % and 96.65 %, respectively. Conclusion: It can be stated that bioactive compounds of Margotia gummifera extracts had different biological activities which confirm their therapeutic uses in traditional medicine.


Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 153
Author(s):  
Adilene Mendoza-Salazar ◽  
Lourdes Santiago-López ◽  
María J. Torres-Llanez ◽  
Adrián Hernández-Mendoza ◽  
Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba ◽  
...  

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) activity of edible insect flours fermented with Lactococcus lactis strains. For the fermentation, mealworm and grasshoppers flours were dissolved (0.5% w/v) in buffer solution (pH 7.0) and individually inoculated (3%) with Lactococcus lactis strains (NRRL B-50571, NRRL B-50572). The samples were incubated for 72 h at 30 °C, and the pH was recorded. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) and protein content were determined. The total polyphenol compounds, antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP), and ACEI of the <3 kDa fractions were analyzed. The pH of the fermented samples decreased to 3.5–3.9 (p < 0.05). The fermented grasshopper flour showed an increased DH (0.42%) and overall higher total polyphenol content (8.23 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/mL). In general, the highest antioxidant activity was for the grasshopper fractions fermented for 24 h by Lactococcus lactis NRRL B-50572, which also showed 23.47% ACEI inhibition with an IC50 of 0.97 mg/mL. The peptide profile obtained increased after fermentation, being higher for the mealworm flour fermented sample. This study presents, for the first time, the use of specific strains of Lactococus lactis for fermenting edible insect-derived products in the production of bioactive compounds with potential antioxidant and antihypertensive activity.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Alshuniaber ◽  
Omar Alhaj ◽  
Qasem Abdallah ◽  
Haitham Jahrami

Purpose This study aims to investigate the antihypertensive effect of camel milk hydrolysate in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Design/methodology/approach The antihypertensive effect of fermented camel milk was determined using 6 groups comprising 36 Wistar male rats. Blood pressure of rats was altered via exposure to a 10% fructose (w/v) diet in drinking water for 3 weeks before conducting 21 days of treatment. The authors conducted the experiment for short and long term using different doses of 800 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight. Serum was used to assay total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), glucose and insulin levels using standard biochemical kits. Findings The group that received 1,200 mg hydrolysate camel milk (HM) has significantly (p = 0.003) reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure after a short exposure time (4–8 h). These effects were significantly (p = 0.005) comparable to the nifedipine (NIF) drug group. Similar long-term (21 days) effects on blood pressure were observed in 1,200 mg HM and NIF groups. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and levels were also reduced in a correlation with blood pressure reduction only in HM1200 and HM800 treated groups. The authors observed no significant effect on blood pressure in groups receiving the 800 mg HM or 1,200 mg unhydrolyzed camel milk (UM). Rats receiving the 10% fructose diet showed significant differences from control rats regarding their blood biochemistry, including TG, TC, blood glucose and insulin levels. Rats in groups NIF, HM1200 and HM800 showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum glucose, insulin, TG and TC levels toward the baseline level. Research limitations/implications Further mechanistic investigation on the HM antihypertensive activity is highly recommended before suggesting HM as a product to reduce blood pressure. While drug–food interaction between HM and antihypertensive drugs, especially ACE inhibitors, is probable, UM seems not to affect blood pressure or ACE activity and therefore is expected to have no or minimal effects on the activity of other antihypertensive drugs. Investigation of ACE expression from various organs including lungs and leukocytes is highly recommended in future works using sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Originality/value No previous studies have measured the antihypertensive activity of milk hydrolysate mediated by the reduction of ACE activity and levels in plasma. Mechanisms involved in attenuating the levels of ACE warrant further investigation.


Author(s):  
Ramachandran S. ◽  
Binoy Varghese Cheriyan ◽  
M. Vijey Aanandhi

Thiazolidine-4-ones containing thiazole moiety have been synthesized by condensing 6-amino Coumarin, Isatin and Primary amines, and aromatic aldehydes. Azetidine derivates were synthesized followed by cyclizations by C-N bond formation and by the C-C bond formation, the amine-catalyzed cycloaddition of allenoates and imines, photocycloadditions of imines and alkenes, ring contraction and expansion rearrangements, and reduction of azetidine-2-ones (β-lactams). Thiazolidine-4-ones has been considered as a magic moiety because it posses almost all types of biological activities such as Antifungal, Antitubercular, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Cytotoxic, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Anti YFV (yellow fever virus) activities. Azetidine-2-one derivatives were reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal and antidepressant activity, anticonvulsant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and cardiovascular activities, antimycobacterial activity, antihypertensive activity. This article is a review of various biological activities of thiazolidine-4-ones and Azetidine-2-ones derivatives.


2021 ◽  
pp. 168-171
Author(s):  
Ika Purwidyaningrum ◽  
Jason Merari Peranginangin ◽  
Iyem Sahira

Introduction: The matoa plant (Pometia pinnata) leaves can be used to treat hypertension. Matoa leaves are thought to have antihypertensive activity because they contain flavonoids. These flavonoids can reduce blood pressure that is modulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). It is suspected that matoa leaves have antihypertensive activity as they contain quercetin which is a compound that is presumed to be an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Aims: This study aims to determine which extracts and fractions from matoa leaves are able to decrease angiotensin I levels. Methods: The extraction was done by maceration with 96% ethanol solvent and fractionated by a liquid method using an n-hexane fraction solvent, an ethyl acetate fraction, and a water fraction. In this study, 21 male Wistar rats were used as test animals and divided into seven groups: Group I was the normal control, group II was the negative control (CMC-Na 1%), group III was the positive control (Irbesartan), group IV was given matoa leaf extract with 60 mg/200g body weight ratio, Group V was given 2.34 mg/g fraction of n-hexane, Group VI was given ethyl acetate fraction 9.54 mg/200g ethyl acetate fraction, and Group VII was given water fraction 7.98 mg/200g water fraction. The data obtained was analysed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, the Levene test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results showed that the angiotensin I levels induced by angiotensin II were more significant (p < 0,05) than those in the normal and negative groups. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a 23.6% decrease in angiotensin I level, which was close to the 24.8% decrease in the positive group. The extract from the matoa leaves showed a 17.2% decrease in angiotensin I levels which were close to the 20% decrease in the positive group.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 326-331
Author(s):  
Kanik ◽  
Gauri Jairath ◽  
Birbal Singh ◽  
Jyoti B. Dhar ◽  
Rinku Sharma ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 238-243
Author(s):  
Lebin Yin ◽  
Yali Liu ◽  
Ping He ◽  
Lele Li ◽  
Jing Wu ◽  
...  

To optimize the process conditions of preparation of antihypertensive peptides from the soybean whey fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum, based on the single factor, the response surface method was used and its antihypertensive activity in vitro was studied. The results of variance analysis showed that the order affecting the polypeptide yield was: the initial pH > fermentation time > fermentation temperature > glucose addition. The model regression analysis showed that the optimal conditions for the production of antihypertensive peptides by Lactobacillus plantarum were as follows: fermentation temperature was 37 °C, fermentation time was 17 h, the initial pH of fermentation was 6.4, the amount of glucose addition was 1.50%, the polypeptide yield was 62.53% and the predicted value was 61.61%, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). In vitro, antihypertensive activity results showed that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition rate of fermented soy whey peptides was 85.77%. The results provided the theoretical basis for the high-value development and utilization of soy whey.


KIMIKA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Trisha Rojas ◽  
Jherome Co ◽  
Mia Clare Marie Bercansil ◽  
Lory Jane Dela Cruz ◽  
Lawrence Yves Uy ◽  
...  

Hypertension has been reported as the second major cause of morbidity in the Philippines. One of the mechanisms to control blood pressure is through the inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). This study specifically focused on the determination of ACE inhibitory activities of peptides from ‘Carabao’ mango flesh of three shell colors (SC1, SC3, SC5). The bioactive peptides were obtained upon a series of extraction, purification, and enzymatic hydrolysis steps. Among the undigested and digested crude and purified samples, the highest in vitro ACE inhibition was exhibited by the three-hour digest of SC3 (83.28 ± 0.83%). The most prominent peak from the fractionation of the mixture of peptides in SC3 digest was evaluated for ACE inhibition, and the decrease in activity inferred the synergistic effect of the peptides in exhibiting the inhibitory function. This selected bioactive peptide was revealed to have alanine and phenylalanine as the components, which can possibly be AF – an ACE inhibitory peptide determined from in silico analyses. Meanwhile, assessment of the in vivo antihypertensive activity showed no significant results due to insufficiently administered doses of the samples. Overall, the measured activity of the ACE inhibitory peptides inferred the potential of mango as a functional food in dealing with hypertension.  


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