Energy Restriction
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Mattia D'Alleva ◽  
Federica Gonnelli ◽  
Filippo Vaccari ◽  
Yves Boirie ◽  
Christophe Montaurier ◽  

The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in the energy cost of locomotion during walking (Cw) related to the changes in body mass (BM, kg) and body composition in adolescents with obesity. Twenty-six (12 boys and 14 girls) obese adolescents (mean: BMI, 33.6±3.7 kg/m2; 42.7±4.5 % fat mass) followed a 9-month multidisciplinary inpatient weight-reduction program consisting of lifestyle education, moderate energy restriction, and regular physical activity in a specialized institution. At baseline (M0), by the end of the 9-month program (M9) and after 4-months follow-up (M13), V’O2 and V’CO2 of standardized activity program were assessed by whole-body indirect calorimetry over 24 hours, and body composition was assessed by DXA. At M9, adolescents showed a 18% reduction in BM (p<0.001), 40% in total FM; while FFM (kg) remained stable in boys but decreased by ~6% in girls (p=0.001). Similarly, the mean Cw decreased by 20% (p<0.001). At M13, BM, FM and Cw were slightly higher compared than at M9. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction and regular moderate physical activities improved walking economy, improved exercise tolerance and induced beneficial changes in body composition of adolescents with obesity. Novelty bullets • Reduction of FM in the trunk region, and consequently reducing the work carried out by respiratory muscles, contribute to reduce Cw in adolescents with obesity. • A lower cost of walking can be effective in improving exercise tolerance and quality of life in obese adolescents.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Omar Andrade-Mayorga ◽  
Erik Díaz ◽  
Luis A. Salazar

Background: Polymorphisms in lipid metabolism-related genes have been associated with obesity and body composition, but these have been scarcely described concerning the magnitude of the response to exercise interventions in the overweight/obese population.Objective: To evaluate the association of perilipin 1 (PLIN1; rs1052700 and rs2304795), lipoprotein lipase (rs283), and adrenoceptor beta 3 (rs4994) polymorphisms with high and low responders (LoRes) to fat mass reduction after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and dietary energy restriction in overweight/obese adult women. In addition, we examined the effect of these genetic variants on body composition changes.Methods: Forty-three unrelated overweight/obese adult women were incorporated and genotyped, of which 30 women (age = 27.4 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 29.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2) successfully completed the 12-week supervised HIIT program plus an individually prescribed home hypocaloric diet.Results: An association was observed between the PLIN1 rs1052700 polymorphism with high and LoRes (χ2 = 8.138; 2 df; p = 0.01). Moreover, after the intervention, the carriers of TT genotype of PLIN1 rs1052700 as compared to AA and AT showed a greater reduction in absolute fat mass (Δ: −5.1 ± 1.8 vs. − 1.8 ± 1.4 vs. − 2.1 ± 2.3 kg; p = 0.04). The effect size of this fat mass reduction between TT and AT genotypes was a mean difference of −3.01 kg [95%IC − 4.88– − 1.1], and between TT and AA genotypes was −3.29 kg [95%IC − 4.86– − 1.65]. No differences were observed for other polymorphisms investigated.Conclusion: These results suggest that the rs1052700 (14995A&gt;T) polymorphism of the PLIN1 gene is associated with a differential response to fat mass reduction after a 12-week intervention in overweight/obese adult women. In addition, women with the TT genotype of this genetic variant showed greater changes in fat mass than AA and AT genotypes. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (2) ◽  
Taynah Vieira Aguiar Farias ◽  
Charles Kiefer ◽  
Karina Marcia Ribeiro de Souza Nascimento ◽  
Anderson Corassa ◽  
Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar ◽  

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated chromium supplements and energy restriction as substitutes for ractopamine in the diets of late finishing gilts. Sixty gilts were used, with initial weights of 98.87 ± 0.25 kg and final weights of 122.69 ± 10.97 kg, distributed in a randomized block design with five diets: control; yeast chromium (0.8 ppm); chromium picolinate (0.48 ppm); ractopamine (20 ppm) and energy restriction (reduction of 150 kcal of EM kg-1 of feed), with six replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Feeding diet containing ractopamine enabled better (P<0.05) feed conversion and greater weights of the hot carcass of the gilts. The diet containing ractopamine exhibited a lower (P<0.05) cost of feed per kilogram of gain and higher economic efficiency, when compared to diets containing chromium and energy restriction; these exhibited better outcomes, compared to the control diet. Diets supplemented with chromium and ractopamine resulted in a higher (P<0.05) percentage and quantity of lean meat and a higher rate of carcass bonus, when compared to the control diet and energy restriction. The energy reduction did not harm the gilts’ responses, compared to the control diet. Ractopamine supplementation allowed for a better feed conversion, lower feed cost per kilogram of gain, and a higher economic efficiency index. Supplements of chromium and ractopamine increased the percentage and quantity of lean meat and the bonus index of the carcasses. Therefore, chromium picolinate and chromium yeast are potential substitutes for ractopamine for optimizing the gilts carcass characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Omar Andrade-Mayorga ◽  
Nicolás Martínez-Maturana ◽  
Luis A. Salazar ◽  
Erik Díaz

Background: Human adaptive response to exercise interventions is often described as group average and SD to represent the typical response for most individuals, but studies reporting individual responses to exercise show a wide range of responses.Objective: To characterize the physiological effects and inter-individual variability on fat mass and other health-related and physical performance outcomes after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and dietary energy restriction in overweight/obese adult women.Methods: Thirty untrained adult overweight and obese women (age = 27.4 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 29.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2) successfully completed a 12-week supervised HIIT program and an individually prescribed home hypocaloric diet (75% of daily energy requirements) throughout the whole intervention. High and low responders to the intervention were those individuals who were able to lose ≥ 10 and &lt; 10% of initial absolute fat mass (i.e., kilograms), respectively.Results: The prevalence for high and low responders was 33% (n = 11) and 66% (n = 19), respectively. At the whole group level, the intervention was effective to reduce the absolute fat mass (30.9 ± 7.2 vs. 28.5 ± 7.2 kg; p &lt; 0.0001), body fat percentage (39.8 ± 4.3 vs. 37.8 ± 4.9%; p &lt; 0.0001), and total body mass (76.7 ± 10.1 vs. 74.4 ± 9.9 kg; p &lt; 0.0001). In addition, there were improvements in systolic blood pressure (SBP; Δ% = −5.1%), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; Δ% = −6.4%), absolute VO2peak (Δ% = +14.0%), relative VO2peak (Δ% = +13.8%), peak power output (PPO; Δ% = +19.8%), anaerobic threshold (AT; Δ% = +16.7%), maximal ventilation (VE; Δ% = +14.1%), and peak oxygen pulse (O2 pulse; Δ% = +10.4%). However, at the individual level, a wide range of effects were appreciated on all variables, and the magnitude of the fat mass changes did not correlate with baseline body mass or fat mass.Conclusion: A 12-week supervised HIIT program added to a slight dietary energy restriction effectively improved fat mass, body mass, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, a wide range of inter-individual variability was observed in the adaptative response to the intervention. Furthermore, subjects classified as low responders for fat mass reduction could be high responders (HiRes) in many other health-related and physical performance outcomes. Thus, the beneficial effects of exercise in obese and overweight women go further beyond the adaptive response to a single outcome variable such as fat mass or total body mass reduction.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2222
Jian Lu ◽  
Liang Qu ◽  
Yongfeng Li ◽  
Meng Ma ◽  
Manman Shen ◽  

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of energy-restricted feeding during rearing on the performance, uniformity, and development of layer breeders at the initiation of the laying period. A total of 2400 8-week-old Rugao layer breeders were randomly assigned to one of five groups (480 pullets per group) with eight replicates and were fed one of five diets that were nutritionally equal with the exception of apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) content (2850, 2750, 2650, 2550, and 2450 kcal AMEn/kg) from 8 to 18 weeks of age. The daily amount of feed was restricted to the absolute quantity of the diet consumed by laying hens fed 2850 kcal AMEn per kg diet ad libitum (control). From 18 to 21 weeks of age, all hens were fed a basal diet ad libitum. The body weight (BW) of the laying pullets decreased linearly with increasing energy restriction (p < 0.001) but recovered within 3 weeks of ad libitum feeding (p = 0.290). A gradual increase in the degree of energy restriction resulted in a gradual decrease in average daily weight gain (ADG) and a gradual increase in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and energy conversion ratio (ECR) from 8 to 18 weeks of age (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008). In contrast, the ADG and ADFI (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) gradually increased, while the FCR and ECR (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) gradually improved from 18 to 21 weeks of age. From 8 to 21 weeks of age, ECR improved (p = 0.005) with an increasing degree of energy restriction. The energy-restricted feeding for 6 weeks to the end of the trial improved BW uniformity (p < 0.05). The relative length and circumference of tarsus (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), and the relative weights and lengths of the small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and caeca increased linearly (p < 0.001, p = 0.012, p < 0.007, p = 0.012, p = 0.040; p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p = 0.032, p = 0.029, p = 0.040) with increasing energy restriction at 18 weeks of age. After switching to ad libitum feeding for 3 weeks, the relative weights and lengths of the small intestine, duodenum, and jejunum of laying pullets increased linearly with increasing energy restriction (p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p = 0.011; p = 0.009, p = 0.028, p = 0.032). In conclusion, moderate energy restriction (85.97%, 2450 vs. 2850 kcal AMEn/kg) from 8 to 18 weeks of age and switching to ad libitum feeding from 18 to 21 weeks of age can be used to improve BW uniformity and stimulate the development of the duodenum and jejunum of native layer breeders at the initiation of the laying period without compromising BW.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (598) ◽  
pp. eabd8034
Iain Templeman ◽  
Harry Alex Smith ◽  
Enhad Chowdhury ◽  
Yung-Chih Chen ◽  
Harriet Carroll ◽  

Intermittent fasting may impart metabolic benefits independent of energy balance by initiating fasting-mediated mechanisms. This randomized controlled trial examined 24-hour fasting with 150% energy intake on alternate days for 3 weeks in lean, healthy individuals (0:150; n = 12). Control groups involved a matched degree of energy restriction applied continuously without fasting (75% energy intake daily; 75:75; n = 12) or a matched pattern of fasting without net energy restriction (200% energy intake on alternate days; 0:200; n = 12). Primary outcomes were body composition, components of energy balance, and postprandial metabolism. Daily energy restriction (75:75) reduced body mass (−1.91 ± 0.99 kilograms) almost entirely due to fat loss (−1.75 ± 0.79 kilograms). Restricting energy intake via fasting (0:150) also decreased body mass (−1.60 ± 1.06 kilograms; P = 0.46 versus 75:75) but with attenuated reductions in body fat (−0.74 ± 1.32 kilograms; P = 0.01 versus 75:75), whereas fasting without energy restriction (0:200) did not significantly reduce either body mass (−0.52 ± 1.09 kilograms; P ≤ 0.04 versus 75:75 and 0:150) or fat mass (−0.12 ± 0.68 kilograms; P ≤ 0.05 versus 75:75 and 0:150). Postprandial indices of cardiometabolic health and gut hormones, along with the expression of key genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, were not statistically different between groups (P > 0.05). Alternate-day fasting less effectively reduces body fat mass than a matched degree of daily energy restriction and without evidence of fasting-specific effects on metabolic regulation or cardiovascular health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Christian Roth ◽  
Lukas Rettenmaier ◽  
Michael Behringer

Background: It is often advised to ensure a high-protein intake during energy-restricted diets. However, it is unclear whether a high-protein intake is able to maintain muscle mass and contractility in the absence of resistance training.Materials and Methods: After 1 week of body mass maintenance (45 kcal/kg), 28 male college students not performing resistance training were randomized to either the energy-restricted (ER, 30 kcal/kg, n = 14) or the eucaloric control group (CG, 45 kcal/kg, n = 14) for 6 weeks. Both groups had their protein intake matched at 2.8 g/kg fat-free-mass and continued their habitual training throughout the study. Body composition was assessed weekly using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Contractile properties of the m. rectus femoris were examined with Tensiomyography and MyotonPRO at weeks 1, 3, and 5 along with sleep (PSQI) and mood (POMS).Results: The ER group revealed greater reductions in body mass (Δ −3.22 kg vs. Δ 1.90 kg, p &lt; 0.001, partial η2 = 0.360), lean body mass (Δ −1.49 kg vs. Δ 0.68 kg, p &lt; 0.001, partial η2 = 0.152), body cell mass (Δ −0.85 kg vs. Δ 0.59 kg, p &lt; 0.001, partial η2 = 0.181), intracellular water (Δ −0.58 l vs. Δ 0.55 l, p &lt; 0.001, partial η2 = 0.445) and body fat percentage (Δ −1.74% vs. Δ 1.22%, p &lt; 0.001, partial η2 = 433) compared to the CG. Contractile properties, sleep onset, sleep duration as well as depression, fatigue and hostility did not change (p &gt; 0.05). The PSQI score (Δ −1.43 vs. Δ −0.64, p = 0.006, partial η2 = 0.176) and vigor (Δ −2.79 vs. Δ −4.71, p = 0.040, partial η2 = 0.116) decreased significantly in the ER group and the CG, respectively.Discussion: The present data show that a high-protein intake alone was not able to prevent lean mass loss associated with a 6-week moderate energy restriction in college students. Notably, it is unknown whether protein intake at 2.8 g/kg fat-free-mass prevented larger decreases in lean body mass. Muscle contractility was not negatively altered by this form of energy restriction. Sleep quality improved in both groups. Whether these advantages are due to the high-protein intake cannot be clarified and warrants further study. Although vigor was negatively affected in both groups, other mood parameters did not change.

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