Journal of Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences
Latest Publications


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

153
(FIVE YEARS 153)

H-INDEX

0
(FIVE YEARS 0)

Published By Scires Literature LLC

2766-2276
Updated Tuesday, 14 September 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 705-712
Author(s):  
Cihan Fidan ◽  
Funda Salgur ◽  
Ozdemir Efe Kul ◽  
Yusuf Bozkus ◽  
Gokhan Eminsoy ◽  
...  

We aimed to determine the lifetime and one-year incidence of hypoglycemia in adults who had been treated following a diagnosis of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), the factors that affected this incidence, and its effect on the use of health care resources. The descriptive cross-sectional cost study included adult T2DM patients who had an outpatient examination. Using a face-to-face interview method, patients were required to complete a questionnaire containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, T2DM diagnosis and treatment features, and hypoglycemia events. Episode treatment costs of the patients in whom hypoglycemia was observed were calculated as direct cost per episode from the payer perspective. The mean age of the patients (n = 220) was 48.1 ± 11.8 (range 26-79) years, and the mean duration of disease was 4.5 ± 3.0 (range 1-16) years. According to treatment modalities, the frequency of hypoglycemia in the last year was 4.7% in the patients receiving oral antidiabetic drugs and 32.7% in the patients using insulin. In addition, 61.9% of the patients who had a hypoglycemic event in the last year presented to hospital, and 57.7% of these patients were hospitalized because of the hypoglycemic event. The incidence of hypoglycemia was 18 episodes of hypoglycemia per 100 patient years for T2DM patients and 25 severe hypoglycemia episodes per 100 patient years for patients using insulin. Significant predictors of hypoglycemia included insulin therapy (p = 0.000), regular use of medications (p = 0.013), hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.008), and exercise (p = 0.042). The average cost of a hypoglycemic event was calculated as Purchasing Power Parity İn Dollars ($PPP) 1.370.2 ± 1.407.0 (149.8-5,048.8). T2DM complications are the cause of a high economic burden. Hypoglycemia, which is one of these complications, is observed more frequently in patients who receive insulin therapy, who use regular medication, who do not exercise regularly, and who have been hospitalized in the last year.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 721-730
Author(s):  
Khin Phyu Pyar ◽  
Sai Aik Hla ◽  
Soe Min Aung ◽  
Di Wunn ◽  
Zar Ni Htet Aung ◽  
...  

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China at the end of 2019, became a major threat to health around the world. Breakthrough infection following COVID-19 vaccine has clinical and public health significance. The highest groups at risk of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic is health care workers; the physicians are the frontline workers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of breakthrough COVID-19 infection and their clinical presentation, co-morbidities and outcome among physicians who were fully vaccinated, working in COVID-19 treatment centers in Myanmar. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among physicians, at least 14 days after receiving second dose, working at COVID-19 treatment centers in Myanmar, during the third wave from end of May to August 2021. Data were collected by using standardized forms and analysis was done. Results: Among 410 physicians, 98.2% (221/225) received two dose of vaccination: Covaxin 90.0%, Covishield 9.5% and Sputink V 0.5%. They received first dose of vaccine in January/February 2021 and second dose in March/April 2021. In Myanmar, third wave started in end of May; the largest pandemic surge had reached its peak in July, 2021. In the third wave, most of them 72.9% (161/221) did not experience no infection. The prevalence of fully vaccinated break through infection was 27.1% (60/221); the majority 78.3% (47/60) were mild symptomatic infection. Severe infection was seen in 10% of physicians with breakthrough infection who required hospital admission and oxygen therapy. The common presenting symptoms in order of frequency were body aches and pain 62.6%, sneezing 56.6%, headache 53.5%, cough 52.5%, sore throat 45.5%, anosmia 33.3%, runny nose 23.2% and loose motion 27.3%. The uncommon symptoms were dyspnoea 9.1%, vertigo 6.1%, skin rash 5.1%, vomiting 5.1%, petechiae 3.0%, tinnitus 3.0% and silent hypoxia 3.0%, and non-per-os 1%. Most of them did not have any significant comorbidities. One out of six physicians having severe infection had diabetes mellitus and two were obese. The mean duration of hospital stay was 7 days. None of the cases was fatal. Conclusions: In this study, over 98% of physicians were fully vaccinated; majority with Covaxin. One in four physicians had breakthrough infection in third wave; mainly mild form. Nearly half of them had possible delta symptoms; aches and pain, sneezing, runny nose, headache, cough, and sore throat. Awareness of rare but important symptoms like Non-per-Os and vertigo should be highlighted both to public and health care personnel. Ten percent of physicians with breakthrough infection were severe. Mortality rate was zero.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 669-674
Author(s):  
Sanober Rasool ◽  
Hamdani SA ◽  
Niha Ayman ◽  
Aaliya Fayaz ◽  
Sheikh Shubeena ◽  
...  

The Livestock sector plays a central role in nature resource based livelihood of the vast majority of population and often considered as the poor people’s ATM. They are kept as a unit of production and provide an important source of revenue, employment and wealth. However this sector is facing a number of problems like bad health, shortage of feed and fodder, increase incidence of emerging and reemerging diseases etc and the most drastic amongst them being the Natural disasters like earthquake, floods, volcanoes etc. This paper gives a brief idea about the ill effects of natural disasters on the health of livestock, thereby effecting their production and productivity along with the various strategies to be kept in mind while dealing with disaster like event.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 654-659
Author(s):  
Khin Phyu Pyar ◽  
Soe Win Hlaing ◽  
Aung Aung ◽  
Zar Ni Htet Aung ◽  
Nyan Lin Maung ◽  
...  

A young farmer, tenth standard student, helping his grandfather during holiday, developed anuria after viper bite. Because of headache, non-enhanced CT scan head was done on admission which showed a small pituitary haemorrhage with normal ventricles. Later, he had generalized fits and second non-enhanced CT scan head was repeated which revealed a small pituitary haemorrhage with dilated ventricles. He also had acute kidney injury, septicaemia, cellulitis and DIC. The serum level of TSH, free T3 & free T4 were low; thus, replacement was done. Cerebrospinal fluid study (protein, sugar, cells) including culture was normal. Renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis), platelets transfusion and antibiotics were given. He had torrential polyuria (urine output 12 liter per day) when he recovered from renal failure and it improved dramatically with desmopressin replacement. There was improvement in third non-enhanced CT scan head and fourth one was consistent with normal ventricle and reduction in size of pituitary haemorrhage.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 696-704
Author(s):  
Hassan Malvandi

Background: Sediments in the aquatic ecosystems can be used as suitable indicators for monitoring contaminants. Then, objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Mohammad Abad River, to determine the degree of pollution of heavy metals in sediments using some major contamination indices; to identify the major sources (anthropogenic or natural sources) of the studied metals; and to evaluate the “reference river” of the river under study for ecotoxicology studies. Methods: Samples of sediment were taken from six sites of the river. The present study, eleven heavy metals (chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, selenium, magnesium, silver, aluminum and arsenic) were studied. Results: Comparison of metal concentrations with those of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) showed no association with harmful biological effects for the heavy metals studied except for Se and As. The results of the contamination factor index showed low pollution levels for most metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn and Al), moderate pollution levels for As, and very high pollution levels for Se. The degree of contamination (Cd) and modified degree of contamination (mCd), showing the total contamination of elements, demonstrated very high degree contamination status in the study area. According to the index of quantification of contamination, the values of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Al were derived mainly from geogenic sources of enrichment, while the values for Se and As were enriched by anthropogenic source of enrichment. Conclusion: These findings suggest that continuous monitoring of Se and As in sediment and organisms of the Mohammad Abad River should be directed to evaluate the threat of these elements to the public health and to the ecology of the river under study.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 660-668
Author(s):  
Mfem CC ◽  
Seriki SA ◽  
Oyama SE

Background: Several heavy metals are found naturally in the earth crust and are exploited for various industrial and economic purposes. Among these heavy metals, a few have impact on the human body. Though some of these metals only have effect on human physiology in high doses, others such as cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, silver, and arsenic have delirious effects in the body even in minute quantities, causing acute and chronic toxicities in human. Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder among men and women. Occasional anxiety may be a normal a part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks). This study examined a major environmental risk factor of anxiety disorder and how the adverse impact of anxiety disorder could be ameliorated using zinc and vitamin E. Methods: Animals used for the researched were grouped into four. Group 1 represents control group; Group 2 represents animals exposed a heavy metal (CaCl2); Group 3 represents animals exposed to CaCl2 and then treated with zinc; and Group 4 represents animals exposed to CaCl2 and then treated vit E. Results: Results showed that exposure to heavy metals (CaCl2 in particular) causes severe anxiety disorders. Results also showed zinc and vit E have the capacity to ameliorate anxiety disorder caused by heavy metals. Conclusion: The human body should be adequately protected as man interacts with heavy metals to prevent anxiety disorder, and where a patient becomes a victim of the disorder, zinc and vit E could be used to manage the case.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 685-689
Author(s):  
Mary Shannon Byers

uillain-Barré Syndrome is a life-threatening, demyelinating, autoimmune condition in which the body’s immune system attacks the myelin of the peripheral nervous system. Guillain-Barré Syndrome is characterized by ascending motor weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Demyelination results in nerve inflammation, numbness, tingling, muscle weakness, structural damage to the myelin sheath, and possible respiratory system complications. The annual incidence rate is 1.1 to 1.8 per 100,000 persons worldwide. Guillain-Barré Syndrome is thought to be triggered by an antecedent infection such as a viral, gastrointestinal, or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or reaction to a vaccine. Approximately 9-11% of cases result in severe disability or death. The acute phase can vary in length from a few days to several months, although over 90% of patients begin rehabilitation within four weeks. Patient care involves a team of neurologists, physiatrist, internist, nurses, physical, occupational, and speech therapists, social worker, psychologist and family physician. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, symmetrical muscle weakness, the rate and order at which symptoms appear, and the absence or prolonged latency of reflexes are hallmarks for diagnosing Guillain-Barré Syndrome. A lumbar puncture to test for protein levels in the brain and spinal cord, and nerve conduction velocity test may aid in proper diagnosis, critical for optimizing treatment options and minimizing further progression. Although there is no cure, treatment may consist of plasmapheresis, typically performed four times during hospitalization, or intravenous immunoglobulin. Intravenous immunoglobulin combined with plasmapheresis should be avoided. Although glucocorticoids could repair damage to the blood-nerve barrier, oral corticosteroids could delay recovery.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 675-684
Author(s):  
Jin Wang ◽  
Youjun Jiang ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Ke Li ◽  
...  

The purpose of grain storage management is to dynamically analyze the quality change of the reserved grains, adopt scientific and effective management methods to delay the speed of the quality deterioration, and reduce the loss rate during storage. At present, the supervision of the grain quality in the reserve mainly depends on the periodic measurements of the quality of the grains and the milled products. The data obtained by the above approach is accurate and reliable, but the workload is too large while the frequency is high. The obtained conclusions are also limited to the studied area and not applicable to be extended into other scenarios. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a general method that can quickly predict the quality of grains given different species, regions and storage periods based on historical data. In this study, we introduced Back-Propagation (BP) neural network algorithm and support vector machine algorithm into the quality prediction of the reserved grains. We used quality index, temperature and humidity data to build both an intertemporal prediction model and a synchronous prediction model. The results show that the BP neural network based on the storage characters from the first three periods can accurately predict the key storage characters intertemporally. The support vector machine can provide precise predictions of the key storage characters synchronously. The average predictive error for each of wheat, rice and corn is less than 15%, while the one for soybean is about 20%, all of which can meet the practical demands. In conclusion, the machine learning algorithms are helpful to improve the management effectiveness of grain storage.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 690-695
Author(s):  
Zhang Rong-Hui-Nan

Phthalates (Phthalic acid esters, PAEs) as a common industrial products, a growing body of scientific evidences indicate that exposure to PAEs in early life has a potential harmful effect on the growth and development of organisms in later life, among these hazards, exposure to PAEs widely may increase the risk of asthma in children, which has attracted more and more attention. This article introduced the reasons and effects of PAEs exposure in early life, the relationships between early-life PAEs exposure and childhood asthma from the perspectives of epidemiological and animal studies and the underlying mechanisms of action.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (8) ◽  
pp. 731-740
Author(s):  
Stephanie A Ihezie ◽  
Nachum Dafny

Opioid addiction is classified as a Substance Use Disorder (SUD), a complex and chronic health condition with physical, social, and psychological consequences. While there is no cure for it, we present a novel approach towards preventing a hallmark feature of addiction-- the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Opioids exert numerous effects, acutely and chronically, on the nervous system with physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal being the most adverse chronic features. The degree of opioid dependence can be quantified by the frequency and/or intensity of the behavioral expression of withdrawal seen after abrupt termination of opioid consumption or after treatment with an opioid antagonist such as naloxone. Although the Central Nervous System (CNS) is the primary area of opioid impact, the involvement of the immune system in modifying CNS phenomena was suggested nearly two centuries ago and proved by several groups within the last few decades. Through a series of studies with immunomodulators alpha interferon, cyclosporine A, and cortisol, preclinical experiments show that administration of these agents prior to chronic morphine exposure prevents the expression of opiate withdrawal a hallmark feature of addiction. This review provides updates on current developments in the management of the opioid epidemic and an overview of studies on preventative immunomodulation prior to repetitive opioid administration as a means of addressing one of the underlying symptomatology driving the epidemic.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document