Arthritis Research & Therapy
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Published By Springer Science And Business Media LLC

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Updated Thursday, 02 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jasvinder A. Singh

Abstract Objective To examine patient experience, views, and opinions regarding the ineffectiveness of the current knee osteoarthritis (OA) treatments. Methods Nominal groups were conducted with consecutive clinic patients with knee OA, oversampling African Americans. Patients discussed and rank-ordered their concerns. Results Fourteen nominal groups with 48 knee OA patients were conducted with a mean age of 60.6 years (standard deviation, 9.8) and a knee OA duration of 7.8 years (sd, 5.4); 25% were men, and 54% were African American. The most frequently cited highly ranked concerns for the ineffectiveness of current knee OA treatments were as follows: (1) medication-related—(A) side effects (3 groups; 4% vote), (B) limited efficacy (5 groups; 11% vote), (C) medication not targeting underlying disease (7 groups; 16% vote), (D) lack of personalized medication use (3 groups; 4% vote), (E) temporary benefit (3 groups; 6% vote), and (F) fear of addiction/natural treatment preference (2 groups; 3% vote); (2) exercise/physical therapy-related—(G) exacerbation of joint pain (1 group; 3% vote), (H) difficulty in doing exercises (2 groups; 2% vote), (I) lack of motivation (8 groups; 12% vote), (J) technical challenges/lack of personalized exercise regimens (1 group; 1% vote), and (K) cost (2 groups; 3% vote); and (3) weight loss-related—(L) difficulty in achieving weight loss (4 groups; 6% vote) and (M) motivation (1 group; 1% vote). Conclusions A representative sample of participants with knee OA identified several barriers to the effectiveness of current knee OA treatments. This new knowledge provides insights for making the current treatment options potentially more usable and/or more effective.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mingzhu Wang ◽  
Jiao Chen ◽  
Xiaoying Lin ◽  
Lin Huang ◽  
Haichang Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Humidity was an unfavorable factor for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA disease activity was severe in high humidity conditions. However, there is no evidence to demonstrate the effects of humidity on arthritis in the animal experiments and explore its relevant mechanism. Methods Using the DBA/1 mice, this study addressed the effects of a high humidity (80 ± 5%) on arthritis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Then, this study used the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to explore alterations in serum metabolome caused by the high humidity. Furthermore, xylitol and L-pyroglutamic acid, which were both significantly upregulated by the high humidity, were selected to further study their effects on arthritis in the CIA mice. Results The high humidity (80 ± 5%) could aggravate arthritis variables including increasing arthritis score and swelling, serum autoantibodies (anti-COII and anti-CCP), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, and G-CSF). In addition, the high humidity could cause significant alterations in serum metabolome in the CIA mice. Xylitol and L-pyroglutamic acid were the representative serum metabolites that were significantly upregulated by the high humidity. Further experiments demonstrated that the supplementation of 0.4 mg/mL xylitol in drinking water after inducing the CIA model and 2.0 mg/mL in drinking water before inducing the CIA model could both aggravate arthritis in the CIA mice. Conclusions These data demonstrated that high humidity was not beneficial for arthritis development and its mechanism might be associated with xylitol and L-pyroglutamic acid.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yogita Ghodke-Puranik ◽  
Zhongbo Jin ◽  
Kip D. Zimmerman ◽  
Hannah C. Ainsworth ◽  
Wei Fan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background We performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in single classical (CL) and non-classical (NCL) monocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to quantify the impact of well-established genetic risk alleles on transcription at single-cell resolution. Methods Single-cell gene expression was quantified using qPCR in purified monocyte subpopulations (CD14++CD16− CL and CD14dimCD16+ NCL) from SLE patients. Novel analysis methods were used to control for the within-person correlations observed, and eQTLs were compared between cell types and risk alleles. Results The SLE-risk alleles demonstrated significantly more eQTLs in NCLs as compared to CLs (p = 0.0004). There were 18 eQTLs exclusive to NCL cells, 5 eQTLs exclusive to CL cells, and only one shared eQTL, supporting large differences in the impact of the risk alleles between these monocyte subsets. The SPP1 and TNFAIP3 loci were associated with the greatest number of transcripts. Patterns of shared influence in which different SNPs impacted the same transcript also differed between monocyte subsets, with greater evidence for synergy in NCL cells. IRF1 expression demonstrated an on/off pattern, in which expression was zero in all of the monocytes studied from some individuals, and this pattern was associated with a number of SLE risk alleles. We observed corroborating evidence of this IRF1 expression pattern in public data sets. Conclusions We document multiple SLE-risk allele eQTLs in single monocytes which differ greatly between CL and NCL subsets. These data support the importance of the SPP1 and TNFAIP3 risk variants and the IRF1 transcript in SLE patient monocyte function.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Estelle Gerossier ◽  
Saba Nayar ◽  
Sylvie Froidevaux ◽  
Charlotte G. Smith ◽  
Celine Runser ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Sjögren’s syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by immune cells predominantly infiltrating the exocrine glands and frequently forming ectopic lymphoid structures. These structures drive a local functional immune response culminating in autoantibody production and tissue damage, associated with severe dryness of mucosal surfaces and salivary gland hypofunction. Cenerimod, a potent, selective and orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator, inhibits the egress of lymphocytes into the circulation. Based on the mechanism of action of cenerimod, its efficacy was evaluated in two mouse models of Sjögren’s syndrome. Methods Cenerimod was administered in two established models of Sjögren’s syndrome; firstly, in an inducible acute viral sialadenitis model in C57BL/6 mice, and, secondly, in the spontaneous chronic sialadenitis MRL/lpr mouse model. The effects of cenerimod treatment were then evaluated by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, histopathology and immunoassays. Comparisons between groups were made using a Mann-Whitney test. Results In the viral sialadenitis model, cenerimod treatment reduced salivary gland immune infiltrates, leading to the disaggregation of ectopic lymphoid structures, reduced salivary gland inflammation and preserved organ function. In the MRL/lpr mouse model, cenerimod treatment decreased salivary gland inflammation and reduced T cells and proliferating plasma cells within salivary gland ectopic lymphoid structures, resulting in diminished disease-relevant autoantibodies within the salivary glands. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that cenerimod can reduce the overall autoimmune response and improve clinical parameters in the salivary glands in models of Sjögren’s syndrome and consequently may reduce histological and clinical parameters associated with the disease in patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bei Xu ◽  
Guanhua Xu ◽  
Ye Yu ◽  
Jin Lin

AbstractPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe complication of connective tissue disease (CTD), causing death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The past decade has yielded many scientific insights into microRNA (miRNAs) in PAH and SSc. This growth of knowledge has well-illustrated the complexity of microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of gene expression in PAH. However, few miRNA-related SSc-PAH were elucidated. This review firstly discusses the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) in PAH and SSc. Secondly, the miRNAs relating to TGF-β and BMPR2 signaling pathways in PAH and SSc or merely PAH were subsequently summarized. Finally, future studies might develop early diagnostic biomarkers and target-oriented therapeutic strategies for SSc-PAH and PAH treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tong Yang ◽  
Kai Sun ◽  
Chun Wang ◽  
Gaurav Swarnkar ◽  
Songtao Quan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is cleaved by several proteases including by caspase-1, a component of intracellular protein complexes called inflammasomes. Caspase-1 also converts pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 into bioactive IL-1β and IL-18, respectively. GSDMD amino-terminal fragments form plasma membrane pores, which mediate the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 and cause the inflammatory form of cell death pyroptosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GSDMD contributes to joint degeneration in the K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis (STIA) model in which autoantibodies against glucose-6-phosphate isomerase promote the formation of pathogenic immune complexes on the surface of myeloid cells, which highly express the inflammasomes. The unexpected outcomes with the STIA model prompted us to determine the role of GSDMD in the post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) model caused by meniscus ligamentous injury (MLI) based on the hypothesis that this pore-forming protein is activated by signals released from damaged joint tissues. Methods Gsdmd+/+ and Gsdmd−/− mice were injected with K/BxN mouse serum or subjected to MLI to cause STIA or PTOA, respectively. Paw and ankle swelling and DXA scanning were used to assess the outcomes in the STIA model whereas histopathology and micro-computed tomography (μCT) were utilized to monitor joints in the PTOA model. Murine and human joint tissues were also examined for GSDMD, IL-1β, and IL-18 expression by qPCR, immunohistochemistry, or immunoblotting. Results GSDMD levels were higher in serum-inoculated paws compared to PBS-injected paws. Unexpectedly, ablation of GSDMD failed to reduce joint swelling and osteolysis, suggesting that GSDMD was dispensable for the pathogenesis of STIA. GSDMD levels were also higher in MLI compared to sham-operated joints. Importantly, ablation of GSDMD attenuated MLI-associated cartilage degradation (p = 0.0097), synovitis (p = 0.014), subchondral bone sclerosis (p = 0.0006), and subchondral bone plate thickness (p = 0.0174) based on histopathological and μCT analyses. Conclusion GSDMD plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PTOA, but not STIA, suggesting that its actions in experimental arthropathy are tissue context-specific.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lixia Zhang ◽  
Cameron L. Kirkwood ◽  
Jiho Sohn ◽  
Ashley Lau ◽  
Mary Bayers-Thering ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) subsequent to acute joint injury accounts for a significant proportion of all arthropathies. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid progenitor cells classically known for potent immune-suppressive activity; however, MDSCs can also differentiate into osteoclasts. In addition, this population is known to be expanded during metabolic disease. The objective of this study was to determine the role of MDSCs in the context of OA pathophysiology. Methods In this study, we examined the differentiation and functional capacity of MDSCs to become osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo using mouse models of OA and in MDSC quantitation in humans with OA pathology relative to obesity status. Results We observed that MDSCs are expanded in mice and humans during obesity. MDSCs were expanded in peripheral blood of OA subjects relative to body mass index and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD). In mice, monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC) was expanded in diet-induced obesity (DIO) with a further expansion after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to induce post-traumatic OA (PTOA) (compared to sham-operated controls). M-MDSCs from DIO mice had a greater capacity to form osteoclasts in culture with increased subchondral bone osteoclast number. In humans, we observed an expansion of M-MDSCs in peripheral blood and synovial fluid of obese subjects compared to lean subjects with OA. Conclusion These data suggest that MDSCs are reprogrammed in metabolic disease, with the potential to contribute towards OA progression and severity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Michaël Doumen ◽  
Diederik De Cock ◽  
Sofia Pazmino ◽  
Delphine Bertrand ◽  
Johan Joly ◽  
...  

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Seulkee Lee ◽  
Seonyoung Kang ◽  
Yeonghee Eun ◽  
Hong-Hee Won ◽  
Hyungjin Kim ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study aimed to classify the distinct group of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) on tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFi) according to the baseline characteristics using a clustering algorithm. Methods The clinical characteristics and demographic data of patients with axial SpA included in the Korean College of Rheumatology Biologics and Targeted Therapy registry were investigated. The patterns of disease manifestations were examined using divisive hierarchical cluster analysis. After clustering, we compared the clinical characteristics of patients and the drug survival of TNFi between the classified groups. Results A total of 1042 patients were analysed. The cluster analysis classified patients into two groups: axial group predominantly showing isolated axial manifestations (n = 828) and extra-axial group more frequently showing extra-axial symptoms (n = 214). Almost all extra-axial symptoms (peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, uveitis, and psoriasis) were more frequently observed in the extra-axial group than in the axial group. Moreover, patients in the extra-axial group had shorter disease duration, later disease onset, and higher disease activity than those in the axial group. The disease activity was comparable between the two groups after 1 year of treatment with TNFi. Interestingly, the extra-axial group had a lower drug survival with TNFi than the axial group (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cluster analysis of patients with axial SpA using TNFi classified two distinct clinical phenotypes. These clusters had different TNFi drug survival, clinical characteristics, and disease activity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tetsuya Ikawa ◽  
Takuya Miyagawa ◽  
Yuki Fukui ◽  
Satoshi Toyama ◽  
Jun Omatsu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that serum CCL20 levels positively correlate with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Considering a proangiogenic effect of CCL20 on endothelial cells via CCR6, the CCL20/CCR6 axis may contribute to the development of SSc vasculopathy. Therefore, we explored this hypothesis using clinical samples, cultured cells, and murine SSc models. Methods The expression levels of CCL20 and CCR6 in the skin, mRNA levels of target genes, and the binding of transcription factor FLI1 to the target gene promoter were evaluated by immunostaining, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. Vascular permeability was evaluated by Evans blue dye injection in bleomycin-treated mice. Angiogenic activity of endothelial cells was assessed by in vitro angiogenesis assay. Results CCL20 expression was significantly elevated in dermal fibroblasts of patients with early diffuse cutaneous SSc, while CCR6 was significantly up-regulated in dermal small vessels of SSc patients irrespective of disease subtypes and disease duration. In human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, FLI1 siRNA induced the expression of CCR6, but not CCL20, and FLI1 bound to the CCR6 promoter. Importantly, vascular permeability, a representative SSc-like vascular feature of bleomycin-treated mice, was attenuated by Ccr6 siRNA treatment, and CCR6 siRNA suppressed the angiogenic activity of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells assayed by in vitro tube formation. Conclusions The increased expression of endothelial CCR6 due to FLI1 deficiency may contribute to the development of SSc vasculopathy.


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