December 2020 - IRO Journal on Sustainable Wireless Systems
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66
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Published By Inventive Research Organization

2582-3167
Updated Thursday, 21 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 146-156
Author(s):  
Christina Gnanamani ◽  
Shanthini Pandiaraj

Wireless communication is a constantly evolving and forging domain. The action of the RF input module is critical in the radio frequency signal communication link. This paper discusses the design of a RF high frequency transistor amplifier for unlicensed 60 GHz applications. The Transistor used for analysis is a FET amplifier, operated at 60GHz with 10 mA at 6.0 V. The simulation of the amplifier is made with the Open Source Scilab 6.0.1 console software. The MESFET is biased such that Sll = 0.9<30°, S12 = 0.21<-60°, S21= 2.51<-80°, and S22 = 0.21<-15o. It is found that the transistor is unconditionally stable and hence unilateral approximation can be employed. With these assumptions, the maximum value of source gain of the amplifier is found to be at 7.212 dB and the various constant source gain circles and noise figure circles are computed. The transistor has the following noise parameters: Fmin = 3 dB, Rn = 4 Ω, and Γopt = 0.485<155°. The amplifier is designed to have an input and output impedance of 50 ohms which is considered as the reference impedance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 128-145
Author(s):  
R. Valanarasu

Recently, IoT is referred as a descriptive term for the idea that everything in the world should be connected to the internet. Healthcare and social goods, industrial automation, and energy are just a few of the areas where the Internet of Things applications are widely used. Applications are becoming smarter and linked devices are enabling their exploitation in every element of the Internet of Things [IoT]. Machine Learning (ML) methods are used to improve an application's intelligence and capabilities by analysing the large amounts of data. ML and IoT have been used for smart transportation, which has gained the increasing research interest. This research covers a range of Internet of Things (IoT) applications that use suitable machine learning techniques to enhance efficiency and reliability in the intelligent automation sector. Furthermore, this research article examines and identifies various applications such as energy, high-quality sensors associated, and G-map associated appropriate applications for IoT. In addition to that, the proposed research work includes comparisons and tabulations of several different machine learning algorithms for IoT applications.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 118-127
Author(s):  
Subarna Shakya

The ability of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and their functions are degraded or eliminated by means of intrusion. To overcome this issue, this paper presents a combination of machine learning and modified grey wolf optimization (MLGWO) algorithm for developing an improved intrusion detection system (IDS). The best number of wolves are found by running tests with multiple wolves in the model. In the WSN environment, the false alarm rates are reduced along with the reduction in processing time while improving the rate of detection and the accuracy of intrusion detection with a decrease in the number of resultant features. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed model and to compare it with the existing techniques, the NSL KDD’99 dataset is used. In terms of detection rate, false alarm rate, execution time, total features and accuracy the evaluation and comparison is performed. From the evaluation results, it is evident that higher the number of wolves, the performance of the MLGWO model is enhanced.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 97-106
Author(s):  
Sivaganesan D

Sustainable smart agriculture with increase in signal to interference or signal to noise ratio (SIR/SNR) for selection of best relay is discussed in a wireless blockchain based network. The overall communication throughput (OCT), power splitting relaying (PSR), time switching relaying (TSR) and transmission success rate (TRS) are also derived during the selection of best relay performance with and without interference. The performance of OCT, PSR, TSR and TRS increases with the increase in the number of potential relay nodes as seen in the results of derivation. The accuracy of the theoretical values are validated by numerical simulations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 107-117
Author(s):  
Joy Iong Zong Chen

The green communication and large-scale connection issues will be faced by the wireless communication networks with futuristic sixth generation (6G) technology. The radio-frequency (RF) and spectrum sources may be shared simultaneously to achieve optimal communication in these networks by means of backscatter devices (BD) that may function in constrained spectrums as well as the stringent energy scenarios of green Internet-of-things (IoT) by means of the proposed novel modified backscatter communication model (BCM). Unlicensed eavesdroppers may interfere with the BD due to its vulnerability caused by the wireless communication channels and their broadcasting nature. The intrusion of an unlicensed eavesdropper is detected in an efficient manner by means of the proposed BCM. The analytical derivations of intercept probability (IP) and outage probability (OP) are invoked to analyze the security and reliability of the proposed architecture. Under high main-to-eavesdropper ratio (MER) regime, the IP and under high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, the OP asymptotic behaviors are estimated additionally. Based on the results of performance evaluation, it is evident that there is a decrease in the security of BD with the increase in MER while there is a simultaneous increase in the legitimate user security. Various system parameters may be adjusted for optimizing the security and reliability performance trade-off. For diverse orders, the existence of error floors are indicated by the non-zero fixed constant of BD and the legitimate user’s OP when high SNR value is observed at the system.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 87-96
Author(s):  
Suma V

Localization is one of the most important aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks that make it applicable in a number of fields and areas. WSN advances in the technological aspects the number of attacks on the nodes of the WSN have also increased proficiently resulting in a number of security issues. One such attack is the Sybil attack which uses multiple pseudonymous identities to disrupt the reputation of the system. This paper is used to analyse the Sybil attacks using a detection and defence algorithm based on distance vector hop. Simulation of the results using the algorithm will be useful in effectively enhancing security of WSN nodes. In this proposed work based on the experimental analysis we have found out that with 50 beacon nodes, we have been able to decrease the average localisation error buy a solid 4% when compared with previous methodologies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 68-86
Author(s):  
Smitha T. V. ◽  
Madhura S ◽  
Shreya N ◽  
Sahana Udupa

This paper examines the use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) in the field of optical waveguides and terahertz signals, with the main goal of explaining how this method aids in recent advances in this field. The basics of FEM are briefly reviewed, and the technique's application to waveguide discontinuity analysis is observed. Second-order and higher-order derivatives result from optical waveguide modeling, which is significant for information exchange and many other nonlinear phenomena. The use of FEM in the improvised design of hexagonal sort air hole porous core microstructure fibers, which produces hexagonal structure cladding and rectangular-shaped air holes in the fiber core for excellent terahertz signal transmission, was also observed. These modifications were intended to improve the fiber's properties in comparison to other structures. This approach verifies that the fiber has high birefringence, low material loss, a high-power fraction, and minimal dispersion varia-tion. The features of square-type microstructure fiber are investigated. A folded-shaped po-rous cladding design is recognized for sensing applications. This type of photonic crystal fiber is also known as FP-PCF since it features circular air holes. The most approximate findings of this application are obtained using FEM. In comparison to many other approach-es for various applications, it is evident that FEM is a powerful and numerically efficient tool. This work does a survey of optical waveguides and terahertz signals using the Finite Element Method. Terahertz signals can be used in conjunction with electromagnetic waves to identify viruses. Thus, Terahertz signals are employed in real-world applications such as fuel adulteration, liquid metal synthesis, and virus detection.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 59-67
Author(s):  
Abul Bashar ◽  
Smys S

This paper presents an analysis of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) security issues that take place due to eavesdropping. The sensor-eavesdropper channels and the sensor sinks are exposed to generalized K-fading. Based on the physical layer security framework we use cumulative distribution, optimal sensors and round robin scheduling scheme to decrease the probability of interception and to equip secure connection between the nodes. For identifying the interception probability, a novel analytical methodology is present with simple analytical expressions. Moreover, diversity orders of scheduling schemes and asymptotic closed-form expressions are evaluated. Numerical results show the crucial result of shadowing and fading parameters of wiretap and main links, selected schemes on WSN security and network size. We have analyzed the output using Monte Carlo simulation and conclusions show the validation of the proposed work.


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