Open Journal of Social Science and Humanities (ISSN: 2734-2077)
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Published By Kivos Research Limited

Updated Tuesday, 23 November 2021

A. Abubakar

One basic component that represents a genuine danger to International Peace and Security was and is Ethno-Religious situated clashes in a profoundly divided society. Ethno-Religious clashes in Iraq, Syria, the Central African Republic, Myanmar, Nigeria, South Sudan and Ukraine among others pull in worldwide consideration and present horrible situations of mass abominations in the influenced state. This paper explores a critical question, what can religious actors do to help deeply divided societies rediscover a sense of living together and building long term peace in the wake of identity-based violence? The objective of this paper is to examine the role of religion in peacebuilding and social cohesion.  This paper employs the multidimensional approach of research which is in pursuit of truth, and also the paper relies mainly on research works such as thesis, dissertations, research journals, newspapers and magazines. The finding reveals that religious actors play a critical role as a stakeholder in peacebuilding in deeply divided societies to rediscover a sense of living together and building long term peace in the wake of identity-based violence and should be involved at all stages of the peace process. The study recommends that the Borno State Government should engage religious actors or faith-based organisations in formulating a policy program that is directed towards promoting social coexistence in a deeply divided society like ours to improve social well-being as well as critical drivers of sustainable development, peace and security.

A Abubakar

Young people need to be recognized and supported to play a major role as agents of peace. The society needs to partner with them to form a sine qua non (an essential condition) in promoting the global agenda for youth involvement in sustainable peace. Peacebuilding is broadly defined as an ‘action to identify and support structures which tends to strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict.’ Therefore, peacebuilding is directed towards the eradication of the root causes of violence and is necessarily a multifaceted and multidimensional project that involves political, legal, economic, social, religious and cultural institutions and security practices, which are understood as complementary and mutually reinforcing. This paper examines how the involvement of youths in the peacebuilding process can promote sustainable peace in Maiduguri, Borno State, as a result of the Boko Haram conflict to avoid future occurrences of such conflict. The objective of the study is to explore the role Maiduguri youths can play in building sustainable and long-term peace in Maiduguri, Borno State as a critical stakeholder. The study employs the multidimensional research method also as a peer-review paper, the secondary source of data was used. The finding reveals that youth are critical stakeholders in peacebuilding and should be involved at all stages of the peace process. The study recommends that the Borno State Government should formulate policies and programs that are directed towards youth’s engagement in governance, address unemployment problem etc. since participatory democracy, youth empowerment, and social wellbeing are critical drivers of sustainable development, peace and security.

C. O. Offem ◽  
M. O. Otun

The study was carried out to determine the effect of gender and educational qualification on the administrative effectiveness of librarians in federal universities in South-South Nigeria. The study adopted the non-probability sampling technique together with the ex-post facto research design which implemented the purposive and accidental sampling technique in choosing the population. A total of two hundred and thirty-one (231) respondents were chosen from six federal university libraries which comprised one hundred and seven professional (107) librarians and one hundred and twenty-four (124) Para-professionals. Data were elicited through a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics (independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. The research questions were answered and the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 levels of significance. Results show that there is a positive correlation between educational qualification and administrative effectiveness of librarians in the South-South universities of Nigeria. Secondly, a significant result was obtained for gender as a predictor of administrative effectiveness of librarians. The study, therefore, recommends that employers of librarians should allow them to improve themselves via acquiring postgraduate qualifications such as a master’s degree and PhD as this will go a long way to add value to them and improved their skills.

M. R. Labe ◽  
A. M. Amande ◽  
T. P. Terngu ◽  
A. P. Atsehe

The purpose of this paper was to present a comprehensive review of sexual violence against women and the victims’ susceptibility to emotional distress and sexual dysfunction. A total of 50 cases of rape victims and rape statistics report were gathered from secondary sources of information. From the retrospective description of some victims’ traumatic experiences, the picture of their negative emotions and grief were carefully analyzed and explanation provided on their exposure to psychological distress and psychosexual dysfunction. Deducing from the review and analysis of the histories and experiences of sexual violence victims, there is a strong relationship between women with history of sexual violence and susceptible to psychological distress sexual dysfunction such as; PTSD, sexual arousal inhibition, sexual avoidance contact, anger and hatred. Others include paranoia, fear of relationship with men as well as stress and re-experience of grief from the unpleasant memories of the rape incidence. Pathologically, sexual violence can threaten the psychological well-being of the survivors in a short and long-term depending on the circumstances and probably where the victim is left without care and support from friends, family and appropriate professional intervention. Thus, women who have been exposed to rape need intensive and suitable psychological intervention to heal their traumatized emotions that induce psychological distress and sexual dysfunction.

A. S. Ekpenyong ◽  
C. N. Omere

The study investigated the socioeconomic impact of coronavirus lockdown in Ibewa community, Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area, Rivers State. The socio-ecological resilience theory served as the theoretical framework while the cross-sectional design was used for the study. Both probability (stratified, simple random) and non-probability(purposive) sampling techniques were used for the sampling procedures. Quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (Seven focus groups) were used in gathering primary data. Also, Cronbach Alpha was used to measure the reliability of instrument(s). On the basis of data collection, twenty-two (22) respondents were randomly chosen from the seven (7) household groups that were already in strata (7×22=154).  Data collected for the study were analyzed with univariate (mean), bivariate(chi-square) and multivariate (multinomial/linear logistics regression) statistic(s) with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 23.0. Based on analysis, the study discovered that lockdown led to human right abuse, economic hardship, deviant behavior among others. In view of these findings, the study recommended that the Federal Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs Disaster Management and Social Development should design an economic recovery plan for indigent households. Also, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control should propose a legislative framework that will curb price hike of essential commodities during disease outbreak.

C. Nnebedum

In the time of Corona Virus also known as 'Covid-19', the World Health Organization (WHO) graded the situation as a "pandemic". One of the measures set out in order to contain the disease by all the countries is what they refer to as "social distancing". The term “social distancing” is misleading. What is being actually proposed relates to physical distancing, and deserves to be so described. A more accurate expression "physical distancing," best combined as ‘maintaining social closeness while keeping at a physical distance’.  In situations like that of Covid-19, social contact is necessary for the psychological-balance of the people. People would need affectionate love and attention from one another through encouragement, sharing of ideas, readiness to help, communications and new contacts. All these are not possible if people are to distance themselves socially. In this paper, we expose the aberrations and inappropriateness of

I. Abdullahi

Insurgencies and other security challenges have caused significant setbacks for sustainable development in Kaduna state. This study assesses the role of the Kaduna state government in managing the security challenges within the state. In this study, significant factors that affects the management of security and its challenges as well as the disposing conditions were critically analyzed. The objective of the study was to examine the managerial effort of the government in tackling security challenges in Kaduna state being critical in the daily running of the state and proposed appropriate measures that could help improve the current situation. Relevant data for this study were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The study employed the exploratory research method. Indigenes of Kaduna state from different LGAs comprised the study population out of which 100 questionnaires were administered serving as sample size. The study employed descriptive statistical instruments such as frequencies and percentages in analyzing the obtained data. The study showed that majority (51.3%) of the respondents indicated that the government is the most active agent in the fight against insecurity in the state with little corroboration from other agencies. Lack of finance was observed to be the major challenge in the fight against insecurity in the state. Though, most of the state’s managerial strategies were credible, yet laudable to some extent. It was however observed that the little corroboration from other agencies such as NGOs, civil societies, traditional rulers and other security agencies played a significant role. The study therefore, recommends that a more inclusive decision-making approach between the state and other agencies be promoted to ensure cross sectional development and fight against insurgencies in the state. Abdullahi, I. | Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

L. D. Dinshak

In spite of the robust provisions of the ECOWAS convention for the control of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in West Africa, Nigeria which is a leading Member State has been experiencing daunting challenges to personal human security posed by the large-scale availability of SALW. Although Nigeria has made some efforts towards the implementation of the Convention, the status of the country in that regard has not been clear. This paper sought to examine the nature of the implementation of the Convention in Nigeria with a view to determining the lacuna in the process and addressing it. In-depth interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders and leaders of institutions such as the ECOWAS Commission and Nigeria’s Presidential Committee on Small Arms (PRESCOM). Secondary data were also used including official documents and researches related to them. The study revealed that Nigeria has failed to domesticate and implement the Convention accordingly. It therefore recommended that the Federal Government should urgently take steps towards establishing the National Commission and put the required structure and support to ensure its effective and efficient implementation.  Dinshak, L. D. | Centre for Conflict Management and Peace Studies, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

I. G. Ujene

Terror and wars are not recent events as they had always existed with mankind since creation. According to Charles Darwin, in his concept of “survival of the fittest,” only the strong survive and this statement had gone ahead overtime to prove its validity both domestically and the world over. Although wars are not new, their effects (especially social effects) such as the effect on religion, destruction of social networks and support, functional impairment, conduct disorder (deviance), destruction of social capitals, destruction of social institutions and on young people cannot be ignored since every action is consequential. Nigeria is not an exception to terrorisms, wars and insurgencies as can be proven by her most recent histories; there had been the civil war, Niger-Delta insurgency and now the terroristic act of Boko Haram in the North-East. Due to the numerous effects of war, there are many scholarly works on psychological, biological and the economic dimensions but the social effects of terror such as is currently going on in North-East Nigeria are more trans-generational and have a more diverse outlook, despite this, there is the silence of literature on such effects thus, the aptness of this work. This paper underscores the social effects of the ongoing insurgence of Boko Haram in the North-East Nigeria on young individuals. Although United Nations in 1981 designated 15-24 years as youths, this study adopts 13-24 years for a wider coverage due to the historic-religious and cultural documentations and evidences of early marriages among the people under study. Theoretically, structural functionalism is apt in the explanation of this growing situation and it submits that the Nigerian state should pay much attention on development, Nigeria should explore the informal education sector and that religion of any kind should be de-radicalized and any iota of inciting messages should be expunged from worship places. Ujene, I. G. | Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

O. H. Efanodor-Obeten

The Non-Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which is one of the world’s most widely adopted security conventions, which also proved to be one of the most controversial treaty. Its provisions define the core bargain between those few Nuclear weapon states and numerous Non-Nuclear weapon states. The paper examines the NPT and undertakes an excursus on the dangers posed to the international nuclear control effort by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Using secondary sources of information, the paper examines the NPT by tracing its historical basis. This enabled the study to interrogate the NPT, in spite of its major achievements, questions and criticisms are being raised about the implementation of the NPT and its overall strength. The past years have seen a series of efforts by multilateral institutions to enforce the treaty by combining restrictive measures and proposals for long-term arrangements. These efforts have not yielded results so far. The existing Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) are not required by the treaty to give up nuclear weapons but rather to negotiate in good faith. This has questioned the credibility of the nuclear states to press others to drop their nuclear ambitions. More ominous still, is the risk of the qualitative escalation of proliferation of nations following North Korea’s withdrawal and series of test.  The findings of the study reveal that the potential danger posed by North Korea are in threefold; firstly, if there is war in the Korean peninsula it could use nuclear weapons against its neighbors. Secondly, North Korea could help other states build a nuclear reactor that could produce materials for nuclear weapon. And lastly, North Korea’s nuclear programme could breakdown the international regime intended to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. The paper concludes that the case of North Korea has proved that arms control by example is an important adjunct to specific nonproliferation treaties and cooperative measures. Although it cannot by itself stop states or leaders determined to violate an international agreement or tacit understanding, it can enhance the moral authority of the major powers to press others to drop their nuclear ambitions.  Efanodor-Obeten, O. H. | Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo University Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria

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