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Published By Fapunifesp (Scielo)

1678-4596
Updated Saturday, 27 November 2021

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Julián Sebastián Ramírez Moreno ◽  
Sergio Andrés Vega Porras ◽  
Roosevelt Humberto Escobar ◽  
Elena E. Stashenko ◽  
Jorge Luis Fuentes Lorenzo ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: This research described an efficient micropropagation protocol for Lippia origanoides (Verbenaceae). Sterile seeds were used to obtain germinated seedlings in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with sucrose and agar. The nodal segments obtained from seedlings were grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA), benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) with BAP. The callus induction, shoots length, shoots number and root length, were analyzed. The treatments showed high percentage of callus formation at 0.5 to 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP alone or in combination with NAA (0.1 mg L-1). The highest value of shoot number per nodal segments was obtained at 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP (4.3 ± 0.8). The obtained plantlets were better rooted in vitro in the absence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and they showed acclimatization rate of 90%. We reported a protocol for in vitro propagation and acclimatization of L. origanoides for A chemotypes from Colombia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Júlia Gabriela Wronski ◽  
Fernando Froner Argenta ◽  
Regina Tose Kemper ◽  
Jacqueline Raiter ◽  
Natasha Rossoni de Oliveira ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: Multiple congenital malformations can occur concomitantly in several species since the anomaly in one organ may lead directly to the malformation of another. Additionally, the etiology is not always clarified. Choristoma refers to an ectopic tissue that is histologically normal in an abnormal location. A case of pulmonary and nodal choristoma associated with cranioschisis, hydrocephalus, and syringomyelia in a new-born calf is reported here. Clinically, the calf had a mass in the frontal region of the head associated with local bone deformation. At necropsy, there was cranioschisis in the junction of the frontal bones and a 14 × 10 × 7 cm mass, grossly consistent with well-differentiated pulmonary tissue covered by skin, covering the opening between the frontal bones, and extending into the cranial cavity, leading to local cerebral compression. With the pulmonary choristoma, there was a well-differentiated lymphoid tissue. Additionally, in the central nervous system, there was severe hydrocephalus involving lateral ventricles and multiple areas of syringomyelia in the spinal cord.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Adriane da Fonseca Duarte ◽  
Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte ◽  
Patrícia da Silva Grinberg ◽  
Uemerson Silva da Cunha

ABSTRACT: Soilless cultivation of strawberry is in expansion in Brazil due to factors like the reduction of phytosanitary problems and the possibility of extending the crop period, as well as the ergonometric facility for management of the culture. However, black fungus gnats (Sciaridae, Diptera) are ubiquitous pests in the greenhouse production system, causing direct and indirect damage to plants. ThIS study evaluated the occurrence of black fungus gnats species in semi-hydroponic cultivation of strawberry and to identify the species, as well as to describe the symptoms in infested plants. The research was developed in commercial productions of strawberry, in five municipalities (Arroio do Padre, Canguçu, Capão do Leão, Pelotas and Turuçu) during July to December 2017, where adult samples were collected twice a month, with petri dish traps containing water and neutral detergent placed inside the greenhouses between the plants. A total of 2030 adult gnats belonging to two species were collected. Bradysia aff. impatiens, accounted with 90.79% of the total, and Bradysia aff. ocellaris, accounted with 9.21%. In order to assist the correct determination of species, males of both species were identified and illustrated. With respect to the symptoms observed during the research, it was possible to verify since the wilted crown of plants to the death of plants, which were confirmed by the presence of larvae in the root system. As the occurrence of these insects is recent in strawberry, there is no pesticide registered in Brazil, so management strategies (cultural, physical, and sanitary) also are discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Valentina Ylluyanka Méndez Moncada ◽  
Luana Fidelis Américo ◽  
Paulo Gonçalves Duchini ◽  
Gabriela Cristina Guzatti ◽  
Daniel Schmitt ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: In this study we tested whether the root biomass of mixtures composed by grass species is greater than their respective monocultures. The treatments were monocultures of Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerata, and a mixture of them, cultivated in a rich-soil environment. Root biomass was evaluated on a single evaluation per season at three soil depths (0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm). Mixed swards presented the greatest root biomass, and this was explained by a greater concentration in the topsoil layer (0-5 cm). These findings reinforce the need for permanent soil conservation practices to not jeopardize the benefits of the more abundant root biomass reported in the mixed swards.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
João Leodato Nunes Maciel ◽  
Gustavo Bilíbio dos Santos ◽  
Carlos Augusto Pizolotto ◽  
Marcos Kovaleski ◽  
Alieze Nascimento da Silva ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: The first report of wheat blast in the world was in Brazil, in 1986. Since then, a great effort has been made towards the development of wheat cultivars resistant to this disease, which is caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae Triticum (PoT). The objective of this research was to (i) evaluate the resistance of wheat genotypes to blast and (ii) verify the correlation between disease severity on wheat spikes and sporulation rate of PoT on spike rachises. Plants of 40 cultivars grown in pots, at the flowering stage (stage 65 on the Zadoks scale), were inoculated with a suspension of conidia of a PoT isolate representative of the main variant of the fungus reported in Brazil. Severity of blast on the spikes at 5 and 7 days after inoculation (dai) and the rate of sporulation of the fungus on the rachis (conidia per g of rachis) were evaluated. Eighty percent of the cultivars that were classified in the group with the lowest sporulation rate were also classified in the group with the highest resistance at 7 dai. However, the correlation coefficients of the analysis established between the cultivar severity at 5 and 7 dai averages and the PoT sporulation rate averages were not significant (r=0.2464 and r=0.2047, respectively). Results obtained represent the updated characterization to blast of wheat cultivars in Brazil and constitute an important exploratory framework for the evaluation of the reaction of wheat genotypes based on the sporulation rate of PoT on their tissues.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Morgana Coelho Mamede ◽  
Raquel Pinheiro Mota ◽  
Anielle Christine Almeida Silva ◽  
Nilvanira Donizete Tebaldi

ABSTRACT: Maize white spot (MWS) caused by Pantoea ananatis is one main maize leaf diseases, and nanoparticles (NPs) are an innovative approach for bacterial disease control. This research evaluated the toxicity of pure NPs and doped NPs with different elements in inhibiting bacterial growth and to control MWS. Pure NPs and ZnO NPs doped with silver (Ag), gold (Au), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) at different concentrations were used to determine the toxicity for P. ananatis in vitro, evaluating the bacterial growth inhibition zone. To assess the control of MWS, in the preventive application, maize plants were sprayed with NPs of ZnO:0.1Cu, ZnO:0.05Fe, ZnO:0.2Mn and ZnO:0.7Ni at 10, 5 or 2.5 mg mL-1, and after 3 days, the plants were inoculated with bacterial suspension. To assess the curative application, plants were inoculated with the bacteria, and 3 days later sprayed with the NPs. The disease severity was assessed and the area under the disease-progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated. The doped ZnO NPs with different elements, and at different concentrations inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. NPs of ZnO:0.1Cu and ZnO:0.2Mn at 5 or 2.5 mg mL-1, in both applications reduced the severity of MWS, showing potential for use in the disease management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lorena Chaves Monteiro ◽  
Rinaldo Batista Viana ◽  
Raffaella Bertoni Cavalcanti Teixeira ◽  
Marcel Ferreira Bastos Avanza ◽  
Pedro Ancelmo Nunes Ermita ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: The effects of acetate as an alkalinizing agent in maintenance enteral electrolyte solutions administered by nasogastric route in a continuous flow have not been previously described in weaned foals. This is the second part of a study that evaluated the effects of two electrolyte solutions of enteral therapy fluid in weaned foals. In this part, will be considered the effects of enteral electrolyte solutions containing different acetate concentrations on acid-base balance, blood glucose, lactate and urine pH of weaned foals. This was a controlled trial in a cross-over design performed in six foals with a mean age of 7.3 ± 1.4 months. After 12 h of water and food deprivation, each animal received the following two treatments by nasogastric route in a continuous flow of 15 ml/kg/h during 12 h: HighAcetate (acetate 52 mmol/l) and LowAcetate (acetate 22.6 mmol/l). The HighAcetate treatment was effective in generating a slight increase in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, base excess and urinary pH.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniela da Silva Mendonça ◽  
Sandra Roseli Valerio Lana ◽  
Geraldo Roberto Quintão Lana ◽  
Ana Patrícia Alves Leão ◽  
Romilton Ferreira de Barros Júnior ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: This study was developed to examine the effect of using charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals as calcium sources on the productive performance, carcass yield and bone parameters of meat quail. A total of 250 one-day-old non-sexed European quail were used. The birds were distributed into five treatments (calcium sources: calcitic lime, calcium carbonate, charru mussel shell meal, maçunim shell meal or oyster shell meal) in a completely randomized design with five replicates and ten birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated from one to 35 days. At 35 days, two birds with the average weight of the plot were slaughtered per plot and used for analysis of carcass yield and bone parameters. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield or tibia dry matter content, ash content and strength. The charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals can be used as calcium sources in the diet of European quail without affecting their productive performance, carcass yield or bone mineralization.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  
Zhaohui Duan ◽  
Hanping Mao ◽  
Hongyan Gao ◽  
Zhiyu Zuo

ABSTRACT: For non-destructive detection of water stress in lettuce, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to quantitatively analyze water content in lettuce. Four gradient lettuce water contents were used . Spectral data of lettuce were collected by a THz-TDS system, and denoised using the S-G derivative, Savitzky-Golay (S-G) smoothing and normalization filtering. The fitting effect of the pretreatment method was better than that of regression fitting, and the S-G derivative fitting effect was obtained. Then a calibration set and a verification set were divided by the Kennan-Stone algorithm, sample set partitioning based on joint X-Y distance (SPXY) algorithm, and the random sampling (RS) algorithm, and the parameters of RS were optimized by regression fitting. The stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling, iteratively retained information variables and interval combination optimization were used to select characteristic wavelengths, and then continuous projection was used on basis of the three algorithms above. After the successive projection algorithm was re-screened, partial least squares regression was used into modeling. The regression coefficients Rc 2 and RMSEC reach 0.8962 and 412.5% respectively, and Rp 2 and RMSEP of the verification set are 0.8757 and 528.9% respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aydin Altop ◽  
Isa Coskun ◽  
Ayse Gul Filik ◽  
Huseyin Cayan ◽  
Ahmet Sahin ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: Effects of dietary Agaricus bisporus mixture or stalk or cap on growth performance, carcass components and some meat quality parameters, mesophilic aerobic bacterial counts, and intestinal histomorphology in broiler chickens were investigated. Two hundred and forty one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 4 experimental groups with 4 replicates, each including 15 birds. Chickens were fed with basal diet (C), mushroom mixture (MM, 10 g stalk+10 g cap/kg diet), mushroom stalk (MS, 20 g/kg diet) and mushroom cap (MC, 20 g/kg diet). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved (P < 0.01) by dietary MS while feed intake (FI) decreased (P < 0.01) in all treatment groups compared to control. However, body weight gain (BWG) was decreased (P < 0.01) by MC inclusion. Mushroom supplemented groups had higher (P < 0.05) mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the cecum. MS inclusion increased villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum (P < 0.01) and villus height in the ileum (P < 0.01) and jejunum (P < 0.05). MC increased (P < 0.01) crypt depth in the jejunum. There were no statistical differences among groups for carcass components (P > 0.05). The L* values were decreased (P < 0.01) in thigh meat but increased (P < 0.01) in breast meat by mushroom inclusion. The a* values were decreased (P < 0.01) and b* values were increased (P < 0.05) in both thigh and breast meat with mushroom addition to diet. The obtained results indicated that A. bisporus stalk meal at an inclusion level of 20 g/kg of diet had favourable effects on growth performance with higher feed efficiency, improved intestinal morphology with higher villus height and increased meat quality of broiler chickens.


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