Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Malikussaleh (JSPM)
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Published By LPPM Universitas Malikussaleh

2747-1292
Updated Thursday, 08 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Iqbal Ramadhan

The emergence of coronavirus at the end of 2019 caused the world to fall into a global pandemic. It cannot be denied that the phenomenon of the Covid-19 pandemic caused a downturn in the global economy. The threat of the Covid-19 pandemic has endangered social aspects and has also destabilized the political and economic life of all countries. Covid-19 has an impact on human security around the world. The concept of human security essentially emphasizes human freedom from fear. Through the concept of human security, this article seeks to explain how people are classified as vulnerable objects. Their lives could be threatened by Covid-19. The author uses a qualitative methodology with case study techniques to address this issue. The analysis in this article shows that poor, undernourished people who do not have access to sanitation and health services live in densely populated areas and people with comorbidities are particularly vulnerable to exposure to Covid-19. The conclusion of this research is that the government needs to give priority to these vulnerable communities. They are the entities that need to be protected from the threat posed by Covid-19.AbstrakMunculnya virus corona di penghujung tahun 2019 menyebabkan dunia terjerumus ke dalam pandemi global. Tak bisa dipungkiri, fenomena pandemi Covid-19 menyebabkan perlambatan ekonomi global. Ancaman pandemi Covid-19 telah membahayakan aspek sosial dan juga mengguncang kehidupan politik dan ekonomi semua negara. Covid-19 berdampak pada keamanan manusia di seluruh dunia. Konsep keamanan manusia pada dasarnya menekankan kebebasan manusia dari rasa takut. Melalui konsep human security, artikel ini berusaha menjelaskan bagaimana manusia diklasifikasikan sebagai objek yang rentan. Hidup mereka bisa terancam oleh Covid-19. Penulis menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan teknik studi kasus untuk mengatasi masalah ini. Analisis dalam artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa orang miskin dan kurang gizi yang tidak memiliki akses ke sanitasi dan layanan kesehatan tinggal di daerah padat penduduk dan orang dengan penyakit penyerta sangat rentan terhadap paparan Covid-19. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa pemerintah perlu memberikan prioritas kepada masyarakat rentan tersebut. Mereka adalah entitas yang perlu dilindungi oleh pemerintah dari ancaman Covid-19.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Author(s):  
Nailul Rahmi ◽  
Amiruddin Ketaren

This research was conducted to see how the social network of salt farmers in distributing salt production and their efforts to maintain the existing social networks between salt farmers and distributors. The theory is based on Barry Wellman's theory of interconnecting social networks between actors. Data collection uses non-participant observation methods, namely researchers directly observe how the informants behave and gain direct experience, making it easier for researchers to perform data analysis. The analysis uses descriptive qualitative methods, namely with the aim of providing an overview of social problems through data in the form of descriptions of words or pictures. From the research results, it can be concluded that there are two forms of salt farmer network, namely the network with salt muge and the network with UD Milhy Jaya. As for the efforts to maintain the social network of salt farmers, namely by trust, increasing productivity, improving quality, and determining prices.AbstrakPenelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan agar dapat melihat bagaimana jaringan sosial petani garam dalam mendistribusikan hasil produksi garam dan upaya mempertahankan jaringan sosial yang sudah ada antara petani garam dengan distributornya. Teori yang menjadi landasan penelitian ini adalah teori Barry Wellman tentang jaringan sosial yang saling menghubungkan antar aktor. Pengumpulan data memakai metode observasi non-partisipan yaitu peneliti mengamati langsung bagaimana perilaku dari informan dan memperoleh pengalaman langsung sehingga memudahkan peneliti dalam melakukan analisis data. Analisis menggunakan metode kualitatif deskriptif yaitu dengan tujuan memberikan sebuah gambaran tentang masalah sosial melalui data berbentuk uraian kata-kata ataupun gambar. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa bentuk jaringan petani garam ada dua yaitu jaringan dengan muge garam dan jaringan dengan UD Milhy Jaya. Adapun upaya mempertahankan jaringan sosial petani garam yaitu dengan kepercayaan, meningkatkan produktivitas, meningkatkan kualitas, dan penentuan harga.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Author(s):  
Risna Dewi ◽  
Nur Hazizah ◽  
Muklir Muklir

Ulee Pulo Village, Dewantara District, North Aceh Regency is a small brick industrial area. This material is needed as a building material. The construction worker/laborer profession is identical to the menial jobs performed by men. However, the brick as a building material is produced by women, such as in Gampong Ulee Pulo. Most of the workers in the small brick industry are housewives who are looking for additional income. But the brick production process is out of date. This makes the bricks produced are of low quality because they are undercooked during firing, crushed, and the thickness is not uniform. This condition encourages BUMG Ulee Pulo to carry out empowerment programs for small industry players and brick workers who are predominantly women. This study describes the role of women and efforts to empower the brick business in Ulee Pulo village. The research method used is qualitative with data collection techniques in the form of interviews, observation, and documentation. The entire data obtained were analyzed in a reduced way, then presented so that it was easy to understand, and conclusions were found. The results showed that the empowerment strategy was carried out through coaching and training of female brick industry workers where the funds were sourced from BUMG Gampong Ulee Pulo. AbstrakGampong Ulee Pulo Kecamatan Dewantara Kabupaten Aceh Utara adalah daerah penghasil batu bata. Material ini dibutuhkan sebagai bahan bangunan. Sebenarnya profesi tukang/buruh bangunan itu sendiri identik dengan pekerjaan kasar yang dilakukan oleh kaum laki-laki. Namun batu bata sebagai bahan material bangunan ternyata diproduksi oleh kaum perempuan seperti di Gampong Ulee Pulo. Sebagian besar pekerja industri kecil batu bata adalah para ibu rumah tangga yang mencari penghasilan tambahan. Tetapi proses produksi batu bata sudah ketinggalan zaman. Hal ini membuat batu bata yang dihasilkan berkualitas rendah karena kurang matang saat pembakaran, hancur, dan tingkat ketebalan tidak seragam. Kondisi ini mendorong BUMG Ulee Pulo melaksanakan program pemberdayaan kepada para pelaku industri kecil dan pekerja batu bata yang notabene didominasi kaum perempuan. Studi ini menggambarkan peran perempuan dan upaya pemberdayaan usaha batu bata di Gampong Ulee Pulo. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data berupa wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Keseluruhan data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan cara direduksi, kemudian disajikan agar mudah dipahami, dan ditemukan kesimpulannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa strategi pemberdayaan dilakukan melalui pembinaan dan pelatihan pekerja perempuan industri batu bata dimana dananya bersumber dari BUMG Gampong Ulee Pulo.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Author(s):  
Muhammad Zawil Kiram ◽  
Zamzami Zamzami

The aim of this study is to explore women’s roles in supporting the economic needs in fishermen's families in Dewantara Aceh Utara, focusing on two questions. Firstly, what are the reasons for women to work and earn a living? Secondly, how women support the family’s economy and in what sectors they work? This research was conducted through a qualitative method with primary data collection techniques including socio-economic surveys, participant observations, and interviews. Furthermore, the research data was compiled with a comprehensive secondary literature review that correlates with the research topic. The result of this study showed that the reasons for women to work and earn living are to increase family income, to reduce family burdens, to make friends/socialize, to uphold the belief that both men and women are responsible for working in the family, and play an active role in village/regional and national development. Most of the women from fishermen's families work in the brick-making sector, salt farming, wholesaler, cake making, and laundry. The contributions that women give to their families are to help fulfill their daily needs and also pay for school fees.AbstrakTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peran perempuan dalam mendukung kebutuhan ekonomi keluarga nelayan di Dewantara Aceh Utara, dengan fokus kepada dua pertanyaan. Pertama, apa alasan perempuan untuk bekerja dan mencari nafkah? Kedua, bagaimana perempuan mendukung ekonomi keluarga dan di sektor apa saja mereka bekerja? Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui metode kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data primer meliputi survei sosial ekonomi, observasi partisipan, dan wawancara. Sedangkan data penelitian sekunder dilengkapi dengan studi pustaka yang komprehensif dengan mempelajari buku-buku dan artikel yang memiliki keterkaitan dengan topik penelitian. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa alasan perempuan bekerja dan mencari nafkah adalah untuk meningkatkan pendapatan keluarga, mengurangi beban keluarga, untuk berteman/bersosialisasi, serta bekerja sebagai tanggung jawab laki-laki dan perempuan, dan berperan aktif dalam pembangunan desa/daerah/nasional. Sebagian besar perempuan dari keluarga nelayan bekerja di sektor pembuatan batu bata, petani garam, pedagang grosir, pembuat kue, dan tukang cuci. Kontribusi yang diberikan perempuan kepada keluarganya adalah dengan membantu memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari dan juga membayar biaya sekolah anak-anak.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Author(s):  
Doli Satria Maulana Hutapea ◽  
Teuku Kemal Fasya

In all parts of the world, every human being has various kinds of habits. One of the human habits is smoking. Today, smoking itself is not something that is considered taboo by society. Cigarettes have become objects that are familiar to humans in general. This smoking habit is difficult to break. On this occasion, researchers will try to raise a theme of smoking habits that have become more modern among teenagers, namely vape as a lifestyle for today's smokers. The background of this research is the author's curiosity about why active smokers, especially teenagers, consume vapes as a substitute for tobacco cigarettes. As for the problem formulation in this study, namely why has vape become a trend in Lhokseumawe City? What effect does vape have on the lifestyle of today's smokers? This research took place in Lhokseumawe City. The method used in this research is qualitative research with data collection techniques, namely observation, interviews, documentation, and literature studies using the perspective of consumerism culture and lifestyle studies. AbstrakIn all parts of the world, every human being has various kinds of habits. One of the human habits is smoking. Today, smoking itself is not something that is considered taboo by society. Cigarettes have become objects that are familiar to humans in general. This smoking habit is difficult to break. On this occasion, researchers will try to raise a theme of smoking habits that have become more modern among teenagers, namely vape as a lifestyle for today's smokers. The background of this research is the author's curiosity about why active smokers, especially teenagers, consume vapes as a substitute for tobacco cigarettes. As for the problem formulation in this study, namely why has vape become a trend in Lhokseumawe City? What effect does vape have on the lifestyle of today's smokers? This research took place in Lhokseumawe City. The method used in this research is qualitative research with data collection techniques, namely observation, interviews, documentation, and literature studies using the perspective of consumerism culture and lifestyle studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Author(s):  
M Husen MR ◽  
Maulin Maulina

Consumptive behavior does not only affect modern urban society. The reality is that farmers who generally live in rural areas are also influenced by the consumptive culture. Post-harvest agricultural products are used as a momentum for shopping. The commodities purchased are not limited to necessities but also other needs that are the fulfillment of desires. This study focuses on farmers who do not own land in farming rice and have post-harvest consumptive behavior. Besides, this study also looks at the impact of consumer behavior on their lives. This research uses qualitative methods with a descriptive approach. The results showed that the motives of the families in Gampong Matang Maneh for post-harvest consumptive behavior were the availability of costs and the desire to behave consumptively. The impact of consumptive behavior on post-harvest farmers in Gampong Matang Maneh includes being unable to pay rent for land and difficulty meeting basic needs. Meanwhile, the efforts in meeting their daily needs are (a) involving family members to working, (b) and owes for basic needs.AbstrakPerilaku konsumtif tidak hanya menjangkiti masyarakat modern perkotaan. Realitasnya para petani yang umumnya hidup di wilayah pedesaan juga terpengaruh budaya konsumtif. Pasca panen hasil pertanian dijadikan momentum untuk berbelanja. Komoditas yang dibeli tidak terbatas pada kebutuhan pokok melainkan juga kebutuhan lain yang bersifat pemenuhan hasrat dan keinginan. Penelitian ini memfokuskan pada petani yang tidak memiliki lahan sendiri dalam bertani padi dan berperilaku konsumtif pasca panen. Selain itu, studi ini juga melihat dampak yang ditimbulkan dari perilaku konsumtif terhadap kehidupan keluarga petani. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa motif keluarga petani di Gampong Matang Maneh berperilaku konsumtif pasca panen adalah tersedianya biaya dan keinginan berperilaku konsumtif. Adapun dampak perilaku konsumtif terhadap petani pasca panen di Gampong Matang Maneh diantaranya tidak sanggup membayar sewa tanah dan kesulitan memenuhi kebutuhan pokok. Sementara upaya yang dilakukan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari adalah (a) melibatkan anggota keluarga dalam bekerja, (b) dan mengutang kebutuhan pokok.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Author(s):  
Desy Suryanti ◽  
Ti Aisyah ◽  
Ahmad Yani

The economic wheels in Gampong Tingkeum Manyang are driven by the home industri sector. This reality encourages Dinas Tenaga Kerja, Transmigrasi, dan Perindustrian Kabupaten Bireuen to carry out community empowerment activities. One of the empowered businesses is the biscuit industri. Peanut and coconut biscuits as superior products from the region have been marketed to several regions in Aceh. However, around 2016 to 2019 there was a decline in production. The decline was due to lack of capital, competition, and low productivity. This study aims to determine the strategy in empowering the biscuit industri undertaken by the government to explore what factors have caused the failure of the home industri business. The research approach used is a descriptive qualitative approach. The results showed that the strategies used by the Dinas Tenaga Kerja, Transmigrasi, dan Perindustrian Kabupaten Bireuen were building the capacity of the human resources of actors and supporting business capital. However, the community empowerment efforts were not sustainable so that it was less controlled in the process. AbstrakRoda ekonomi di Gampong Tingkeum Manyang digerakkan oleh sektor industry rumah tangga. Realitas ini mendorong Dinas Tenaga Kerja, Transmigrasi, dan Perindustrian Kabupaten Bireuen melaksanakan kegiatan pemberdayaan masyarakat. Salah satu usaha yang diberdayakan yaitu industri roti kering. Roti kacang dan roti kelapa sebagai produk unggulan dari daerah tersebut telah dipasarkan ke beberapa wilayah di Aceh. Namun sekitar tahun 2016 sampai 2019 terjadi penurunan produksi. Penurunan tersebut diakibatkan kekurangan modal, persaingan, dan produktivitas kerja yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui strategi dalam pemberdayaan usaha industri roti kering yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah untuk digali faktor apa yang menyebabkan kegagalan usaha industri rumah tangga tersebut. Adapun pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan yaitu pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa strategi yang digunakan oleh Dinas Tenaga Kerja, Transmigrasi, dan Perindustrian Kabupaten Bireuen yaitu membangun kapasitas sumber daya manusia aktor dan pemberian modal usaha. Namun upaya pemberdayaan masyarakat yang dilakukan tidak dilakukan secara berkelanjutan sehingga kurang terkendali dalam prosesnya.


2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Author(s):  
Lisa Iryani ◽  
Riska Mauliza

The Lhok Euncien Village Government established BUMDes as the driving force for the economy in the village, but its management has not been efficient. This is because the pond land which is a BUMDes business asset is handed over to a third party due to limited capital, so that BUMDes managers cannot work effectively and efficiently as they should. This research is focused on planning, organizing, mobilizing, and monitoring, as well as the obstacles faced in the BUMDes Lhok Euncien Village program. In addition, it also examines the limitations of capital and Human Resources (HR) and public awareness of the BUMDes program. This research uses descriptive research with qualitative methods. The results showed that at the planning stage, the pond had been purchased as an asset of BUMDes, but the limited capital to manage it was left to a third party. At the organizing stage, it was carried out according to the procedure, but it did not work and went according to plan. The mobilization stage is still constrained by a lack of concern from the village government, BUMDes managers, and the community about the problems faced. While at the supervision stage, BUMDes supervisors only supervise annual reports. Meanwhile, the obstacles faced are related to limited capital and the lack of human resources and public concern for the development of BUMDes businesses AbstrakPemerintah Desa Lhok Euncien membentuk BUMDes sebagai motor penggerak ekonomi di desa, namun dalam pengelolaannya belum efisien. Hal ini disebabkan karena lahan tambak yang menjadi aset usaha BUMDes diserahkan pada pihak ketiga karena keterbatasan modal yang dimiliki, sehingga pengelola BUMDes tidak dapat bekerja secara efektif dan efisien sebagaimana mestinya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada perencanaan, pengorganisasian, penggerakan, dan pengawasan, serta hambatan yang dihadapi dalam program BUMDes Desa Lhok Euncien. Selain itu juga dikaji keterbatasan modal serta Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) dan kepedulian masyarakat terhadap program BUMDes. Penelitian ini menggunakan penelitian deskriptif dengan metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada tahap perencanaan sudah membeli lahan tambak sebagai aset BUMDes, namun keterbatasan modal untuk mengelola sehingga diserahkan pada pihak ketiga. Pada tahap pengorganisasian sudah dilakukan sesuai prosedur, namun tidak berfungsi dan berjalan sesuai rencana. Tahap penggerakan masih terkendala kurangnya kepedulian dari pemerintah desa, pengelola BUMDes, serta masyarakat terhadap permasalahan yang dihadapi. Sementara pada tahap pengawasan, pengawas BUMDes hanya mengawasi laporan tahunan saja. Sedangkan hambatan yang dihadapi terkait dengan keterbatasan modal serta minimnya SDM dan kepedulian masyarakat terhadap perkembangan usaha BUMDes.


2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 189
Author(s):  
Cut Laely ◽  
Murniati Murniati

The Role of Women in village is the most important factor in development of village,but in Blang Village, Syamtalira Aron, North Aceh Regency, there is no role of women in the village governance structure. This is due to the fact that there are no opportunities for women to play an active role in village governance and cultural culture that opposes women to play a role in village governance. This study aims to determine the cause of the absence of women's role in the village government structure and determine the efforts that can be made for women to be able to play an active role in governance structure of village. Researchers used qualitative methods and data collection techniques through initial observation and direct interviews. The results of the study were the absence of an active role among women caused by the limited space for women to play an active role in the village government structure. Distrust of women so that women are placed in daily activities that generally have been carried out routinely by the community. Many factors cause limited space for women in Blang Village, namely factors of community organization, factors of power, factors of public and private, factors patriarchal ideological, and the most fundamental, culture that cause the role active of women can not be accepted at the community in the village government structureAbstrakPeran perempuan dibutuhkan dalam pembanggunan Gampong, namun di Gampong Blang Kecamatan Syamtalira Aron Kabupaten Aceh Utara tidak terdapat peran perempuan dalam struktur pemerintahan gampong. Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh faktor tidak tersedianya peluang bagi kaum perempuan untuk berperan aktif dalam pemerintahan gampong serta kultur budaya yang menentang kaum perempuan untuk berperan di pemerintahan gampong. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penyebab tidak optimalnya peran perempuan di struktur pemerintahan gampong dan mengetahui upaya yang dapat dilakukan agar perempuan dapat berperan aktif dalam struktur pemerintahan gampong. Peneliti menggunakan metode kualitatif dan teknik pengumpulan data melalui obsrvasi dan wawancara langsung. Hasil penelitian adalah tidak adanya peran aktif dari kalangan kaum perempuan karena disebabkan masih ada keterbatasan ruang gerak bagi kaum perempuan untuk ikut berperan aktif dalam struktur pemerintahan gampong dan ketidakpercayaan terhadap perempuan sehingga menjadikan perempuan hanya ditempatkan pada kegiatan sehari-hari yang umumnya telah dilakukan secara rutin oleh masyarakat. Banyak faktor penyebab terbatasnya ruang gerak bagi perempuan di Gampong Blang, yaitu faktor organisasi masyarakat, faktor kekuasaan, faktor ruang publik dan privat, faktor ideologi patriakis, serta yang paling mendasar adalah faktor budaya patriarki masyarakat Gampong Blang yang menyebabkan peran aktif perempuan tidak dapat diterima dalam struktur pemerintahan gampong.


2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 154
Author(s):  
Muklir Muklir ◽  
Susi Diana Mustika

Satpol PP is an element that supports the duties of the Regional Government in securing and implementing Regional Government policies that are specified in the field of public order and peace. The level of discipline of students in Bener Meriah Regency is decreasing at this time. Many students are truant and wandering around during study hours. This study aims to describe how the performance of Satpol PP in controlling students, what efforts are made to improve discipline, and how students’ attitudes and behavior change after policing. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach. The results showed that the performance of Satpol PP in controlling student discipline was good because Satpol PP always routinely patrols 8 times a month. However, there are several obstacles, such as the minimum budget and inadequate facilities and infrastructure so that the performance of Satpol PP is not optimal. The efforts made by Satpol PP to improve discipline, namely in collaboration with the Education Office and school officials, as well as socializing and providing appeals to cafe owners. Meanwhile, we found variations in changes in student attitudes and behavior. AbstrakSatpol PP merupakan unsur pendukung tugas Pemerintah Daerah dalam mengamankan dan melaksanakan kebijakan Pemerintah Daerah yang bersifat khusus di bidang ketentraman dan ketertiban umum. Pada saat ini tingkat kedisiplinan pelajar di Kabupaten Bener Meriah menurun dan banyak sekali dijumpai siswa yang membolos dan berkeliaran pada saat jam belajar berlangsung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendiskripsikan bagaimana kinerja Satpol PP dalam penertiban pelajar, upaya apa saja yang dilakukan dalam meningkatkan kedisiplinan, dan bagaimana perubahan sikap dan perilaku pelajar setelah dilakukan penertiban. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendektan kualitatif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kinerja Satpol PP dalam penertiban kedisiplinan pelajar sudah baik karena Satpol PP selalu rutin melakukan patroli selama 8 kali sebulan. Akan tetapi ada beberapa kendala seperti minimnya anggaran dan sarana prasarana yang belum memadai sehingga kinerja Satpol PP menjadi kurang maksimal. Adapun upaya yang dilakukan Satpol PP untuk meningkatkan kedisiplinan yaitu bekerjasama dengan Dinas Pendidikan dan pihak sekolah, serta melakukan sosialisasi dan memberikan himbauan kepada pemilik caffe dan warnet. Sedangkan untuk perubahan sikap dan perilaku pelajar sangat variatif.


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