Insights on the Depression and Anxiety
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Published By Heighten Science Publications Corporation

2640-2882
Updated Friday, 22 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 025-028
Author(s):  
Shakya Dhana Ratna

Considering the geographical complexity and adversity, online communication and consultation are viable method in Nepal. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the already starting trend of use of these technologies in medicine. In BPKIHS, telemedicine efforts were already initiated; lockdown rather warranted its maximum use. Here is an account of the observation made in telepsychiatry service provided by a consultant psychiatrist of its department of psychiatry. It is an institute-based observation noted for all the telepsychiatry consultations in 9 random duty days of the COVID-19 pandemic. Basic necessary information was noted down in a semi-structured proforma, like: socio-demographic, clinical information and advice provided. There were 104 subjects; 73 follow-up and 31 new: 60 male and 44 female cases. Clients of multi-ethnic groups were the most from urban, then semi-urban and least from rural areas. More consultations were for young age-groups and from nearby districts of Sunsari. Mood, somatic (sleep), anxiety were the top presenting complaints and 8/104 clients had suicidal symptoms. Maximum follow-up cases were improving. The most common diagnoses were: Mood (Depression and Bipolar), Anxiety, Psychosis and Substance use disorders. Most common treatment advices included: Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, Benzodiazepines and Counseling/psycho-education. Telepsychiatry is a viable method of delivering service even during the pandemic.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 016-024
Author(s):  
Hallberg Ludvig ◽  
Gottsater Anders ◽  
Isaksson Anders ◽  
Westrin Asa

Objective: To investigate the occurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders in patients remitted for endovascular treatment of renal artery stenosis (RAS), and whether symptoms of depression and anxiety can be reduced after the treatment of RAS with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA). Methods Patients: Selected for renal angiography with pressure measurement in the renal arteries due to suspected RAS were invited to participate in the study. 37 patients agreed to answer a questionnaire. Eighteen patients also agreed to a clinical psychiatric examination including the International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. 6.0) to be diagnosed according to the DSM-IV. Results: Twenty-one of the 37 patients completing the questionnaire were found to have a pressure gradient of ≥ 10 mmHg at angiography, indicating significant stenosis. Ten of the 18 examined patients met the criteria for current DSM-IV anxiety diagnosis and two patients had a current depression. Three of the 18 examined patients had previously made a suicide attempt. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with suspected RAS have a high psychiatric comorbidity, as 56% of the patients undergoing psychiatric examination met the DSM-IV criteria for a current anxiety disorder.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 009-015
Author(s):  
CC Mfem ◽  
SA Seriki

Background/aim: Amitriptyline belongs to class of known as tricycline antidepresant (TCA) that is being used to treat anxiety and depressive states. It may help improve mood and feelings of well-being, relieve anxiety and tension, help to improve sleep and increase energy level. The study investigated the effect of amitriptyline on learning and memory using eighteen (18) healthy Swiss mice of both sexes weighing 16 – 25 g. Method: The animals were divided into three (3) groups consisting of six (6) animals each. Group 1 served as the control group, Group 2 was administered with amitriptyline at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 3 mls of distilled water, and used to test for learning, while Group three was also given similar administration like Group 2, but used to test for memory. All the animals were tested for learning and memory performance using Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze test. Results: The results obtained from the Novel object recognition task showed that there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total object approach in acquisition trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the acquisition trial of the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in retention trial of amitriptyline group when compared to retention trial in the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total duration exploring objects in acquisition trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the acquisition trial of the control group. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total duration exploring objects in retention trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the retention trial of the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the index of habituation of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the control group. The index of discrimination showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in amitriptyline treated group when compared to the control group and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in amitriptyline group when compared to the control group. In the Morris water maze test, Day 1 – 3 were for acquisition training, day 4 – 6 reversal training, day 7 the probe trial day and day 8 the visible platform day. During acquisition training in the Morris water maze test, there was no significant difference in Swim latencies in day 1 and 2. However in day 3, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in swim latency of group compared to control group and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in swim latency of amitriptyline treated group compared to the control group. During reversal training in day 1, 2 and 3, there was no significant difference in swim latency among the three groups. Results for the retention quadrant in the probe trials showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in amitriptyline group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: Results suggest that amitriptyline impairs learning and memory functions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 005-008
Author(s):  
Parro-Pires Daniela Betinassi ◽  
de C Matias Barros Sérgio Henrique ◽  
HD Araújo Fernanda Sabina ◽  
Santos Daniel Zandoná ◽  
Nogueira-Martins Luiz Antônio ◽  
...  

This paper focuses on the mental health burden on medical and healthcare residents during the 1st wave of COVID-19 pandemic crisis in 2020 describing the activities of a mental health service for residents (NAPREME) in a public university, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil; and a preliminary study showing an increasing of depressive symptoms and depression among residents. Data is related to the screening interviews of medical residents and healthcare multi-professional residents who sought the mental health service from March to December 2020. A comparison was conducted with the same period in 2019 (covering a period when Covid-19 was not affecting the Brazilian population). There was a 22% demand increase in 2020. Of the total amount who sought treatment: 23% were medical residents, 22% nursing residents, and the remaining distributed among other professions; and 58% were first year residents and 34% second year. Data from the BDI questionnaire showed some variance between the two years: the mean score for 2020 was 24.67 (± 7.86) which is in the depression range, higher than the mean score of 19.91 points in the previous year (± 10.15) which is only in the depressive symptoms range (p < 0.005). In the pandemic period there was an increase in residents with depression from 49% to 70%. Depression, anxiety, stress and burnout syndrome were observed, demanding psychological and psychiatric care for this population. Assessment of residents’ mental health will continue during 2021, during the 2nd wave of COVID-19 and an additional analysis will be conducted along the year.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-004
Author(s):  
Mustafa Nazia ◽  
Haleem Fahad

high on the variable of suicidal ideation, hostility and hopelessness ((p < .05) as compared to those with low depression. And there was no significant difference on the variable of negative self-evaluation for both groups (p > .05). So it was concluded that services for patients with Heroin addiction should include periodic screening for suicidal behavior along with psychiatric treatment and psychosocial support.


2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 064-065
Author(s):  
Studd John

It is well known that depression is more common in women than in men with more prescriptions for antidepressants, hospital admissions for depression and suicide attempts. However another aspect to be considered is that depression is different in women than men because women have depressive episodes at times of hormonal shift which is a physiological phenomenon not encountered in men. This is why hormone therapy is so important


2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 059-063
Author(s):  
Chandra Ayush ◽  
Chandra Avinash ◽  
Sharma Nabina

Background: Anxiety and depression are under reported, underdiagnosed mental illness in health worker in Nepal especially during COVID pandemic. The study was carried out as an observational study on nurses in Nepal. In this study we attempted to assess the incidence and impact of depression and anxiety in nurses who are working upfront in different hospitals during this crisis. Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among nurses in Nepal during COVID pandemic who are working in various hospitals. Method: A cross-sectional non-probability purposive sampling with observational analysis was carried out and the sample was collected from nurses working in different hospitals. Prevalence of anxiety and depression was assessed using a structured and validated questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaires (GAD) with a cut-off score for various levels of anxiety while Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was used to assess depression. Result: The analysis of these different scales revealed that disabling anxiety prevailed at highest (43.6%) in nursing staff according to HAM-A scale. Moderate anxiety also seemed to be higher (> 20%) in GAD questionnaire. Conclusion: This is the first study carried out in Nepal that investigates the mental health of nurses who are working in the frontline in this COVID pandemic situation. The study revealed that our nurses who have given their life in the line are suffering from serious mental health problems.


2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 055-058
Author(s):  
Naseer Asma ◽  
Husain Waqar

The use of cell phones has remarkably increased in the last two decades with several pros and cons. The negative consequences of cell phones on mental health have not been studied widely. Aggression, in this regard was a completely neglected area. The present study, therefore, was carried out to investigate the relationship between cell phone use and aggression and to further identify the moderating roles of gender and marital status between cell phone use and aggression. The inquiry included 500 young adults from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire was administered. It was hypothesized that there would be a strong positive relationship between cell phone use and aggression. It was further hypothesized that gender and marital status would be significant moderators between cell phone use and aggression. The results supported the hypotheses on significant differences and made a significant contribution in the existing scientific literature.


2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 049-054
Author(s):  
Plopa Mieczysław

The issues investigated in the current study pertain to selected psychological aspects of human functioning in long-term stress conditions. Results of the analyses performed in this study have submitted evidence to confirm the hypothesis in which it is stated that staying on the sea for a long time is a difficult situation which contributes - to a greater or smaller extent - to starting the stress process in sailors. The role of interpersonal competencies that has been found most distinct; high level of this variable contributed to reducing both anxiety and the feeling of loneliness. It has been evidenced in the research that the skill of good functioning in varied social groups, which results from high level of development of several traits including: openness, spontaneity, responsibility, and sensitivity, becomes particularly important in long-term difficult situations in which there is little possibility of eliminating the real menace. Another conclusion to be inferred from the research is the one confirming the theoretical suggestion in which the importance of ‘ego strength’ in modifying the course of stress process is emphasised. This personality dimension has turned out to constitute the factor capable of protecting an individual against increase in both anxiety states and the feeling of loneliness during sea isolation. Another issue considered in the current study pertains to defining the role of ‘family variable’ in mediating the course of stress process under conditions of long-term task isolation. The analyses have confirmed the hypothesis in which it was assumed that sailors functioning in family systems characterised by high level of integration and quality, experience lower emotional costs during a voyage. Generally, it may be claimed that - according to the research results of the study - ‘family variables’ may constitute a significant predictor of both the ‘quality’ of a man’s functioning and personal costs he experiences in long-term stress conditions.


2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 040-048
Author(s):  
EO Asuquo ◽  
AK Nkporbu ◽  
C Okechukwu ◽  
I Onoh ◽  
NT Okafor

Background: The burden of depression as a mental disorder has continued to increase and constituting an enormous public health concern among all age groups. A number of socio-demographic, and other factors including a stressful and rigorous academic programme or curriculum such as the one run in most medical schools could contribute to the occurrence of depression among medical students. AIM: To determine the socio-demographic and other factors associated with depression among medical students in the University of Port Harcourt. Methodology: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Appropriate sample size was calculated and the stratified random sampling method was used to select the subjects. A well-structured open ended self-administered socio-demographic questionnaire was administered to the students. The Zung Self-Rated Depression Scale was used to assess the depression status of each respondent. The data were analyzed via descriptive and analytical methods. Results: The prevalence of depression among the medical students was 5.3%. Fourteen students (4.6%) were mildly depressed while only two respondents had moderate depression. Year 3 had the highest prevalence with 10.5% followed by final year with 5.3%, while the only 2 cases of moderate depression were found among students in year 2 of their medical programme. Two hundred and seventy-one respondents (88.8%) were found to have good knowledge of depression, 32 (10.5%) were found to have average knowledge of depression and 2(0.7%) had poor knowledge of depression. Conclusion: Depression does occur among medical students at the University of Port Harcourt albeit low, and was associated with a number of socio-demographic and other factors. The present medical curriculum and programme should be sustained and more efforts at making it less stressful and academically friendly, be made to further reduce the current rate of psychological stress and depression among the students.


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