JORDANIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (JJECI)
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Published By Al-Balqa Applied University

2617-720x, 2616-9584
Updated Sunday, 01 August 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 62-69
Author(s):  
Saliha Bouranene

This work aims to optimize the parameters that affect the stability of a W/O emulsion to exploit it in the extraction of heavy metals contained in the liquid effluents. The study of the emulsion stability shows that; an emulsification time of 10 minutes, a surfactant concentration of Span80 equal to 3% (w/w), an extractant concentration of Triethylamine N(CH2CH3)3 equal to 5% (w/w), an internal phase concentration of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) of 0.75M, a volume ratio of membrane phase to internal phase of 1, a volume ratio of external phase to the emulsion of 20 and a stirring speed of 180 rpm; lead to the formation of a very stable emulsion with a very low rupture rate of around 1.92% after one hour of contact time. The results of extraction of copper ions revealed that under the best operational conditions, the extraction yield was closed to 93.33% for 20% extractant content, a contact time of 12 minutes, and an initial concentration of copper ions of 400 ppm. The application of this new membrane matrix based on phosphoric acid used as inner phase, sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant, and Triethylamine as extractant has been proven effective for extracting copper ions in water.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 52-61
Author(s):  
Mohammed Matouq

The benefits of achieving excellent process safety prevent or mitigate incidents. Well, the decision-making process has a benefit on risk reduction. This paper guides how an effective system can be established to develop methods and models for mandatory safety and a healthful workplace. The success of health and safety management depends on the discipline, commitment, and participation of all employees to ensure the success of management strategies and ensure the reduction of significant risks. The sustainability challenges are increasingly by evaluating risk and process safety due to the differences in the knowledge and experiences. Failure Mode and Effective Analysis (FMEA) combined with risk management principles provide an overall assessment to express the deviation that might occur in the process before failure and distinguish the importance of risk factors. This article intended to provide a method for integrating an organization's safety and health regardless of its size and work contributed to regulations and requirements. The benefits to implementing this model in the company will show returns in the investment. The main challenges include identification and discussion of the potential risks, in addition, to the collaborative of researchers between environmental protection and process system leading to the reliability and better understanding of the existing safety concepts.


Author(s):  
Rawanne Farsakouri

By referring to the fact that corrosion rates alter upon variation of different conditions and no research relevant to Lebanon address corrosion issues yet, this study was conducted based on accurate Lebanese offshore data and water composition. Based on "Alloy Select Software", identifying the most suitable material from different alloys was revealed, which turned out to be Copper and Aluminum based alloys. Moreover, corrosion rates were detected under different conditions of Temperature, CO₂, and H₂S and then repeated in the presence of a corrosion inhibitor. Results of these studies proved the significant influence of high temperature accompanied with high CO₂ percentage. However, different results concerning low temperature with different percentages of H₂S were obtained.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 38-43
Author(s):  
Ibrahim Suleiman

The mechanism of methane dissociation on an Rh-decorated Ni(100) surface has been investigated Using density functional theory. The study includes the determination of the most stable adsorbate/adsorbent configurations of the species associated with subsequent reactions and generating the energy surface for 𝐶𝐻4 dissociation process. The Rhdecorated Ni(100) surface was found to be more favorable for the process than the NiRh(111) configuration, mainly due to lower the activation energy of 𝐶𝐻 decomposition reaction by 48.5%, leading to a higher conversion of 𝐶𝐻4 to carbon and hydrogen


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (Vol4) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Omar Al-Ayed

Modeling of biomass pyrolysis kinetics is an essential step towards reactors design for energy production. Determination of the activation energy, frequency factor, and order of the reaction is necessary for the design procedure. Coats and Redfern's work using the TGA data to estimate these parameters was the cornerstone for modeling. There are two significant problems with biomass modeling, the first is the determination of the kinetic triplet (Activation energy, Frequency factor, and the order of reaction), and the second is the quantitative analysis of products distribution. Methods used in modeling are either One-step or Multistep methods. The one-step techniques allow the determination of kinetic triplet but fail to predict the product distribution, whereas multistep processes indicate the product's distribution but challenging to estimate the parameters. Kissinger, Coats, and Redfern, KAS, FWO, Friedman are one-step methods that have been used to estimate the kinetic parameters. In this work, after testing more than 500 data points accessed from different literature sources for coal, oil shale, solid materials, and biomass pyrolysis using one-step global method, it was found that the activation energy generated by KAS or FWO methods are related as in the following equations: 𝐸𝐾𝐴𝑆 = 0.9629 ∗ 𝐸𝐹𝑊𝑂 + 8.85, with R² =0.9945 or 𝐸𝐹𝑊𝑂 = 1.0328 ∗ 𝐸𝐾𝐴𝑆 − 8.0969 with R2= 0.9945. The multistep kinetic models employed the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) using Gaussian distribution, which suffers from symmetry, other distributions such as Weibull, and logistic has been used. These multistep kinetic models account for parallel/series and complex, primary and secondary biomass reactions by force-fitting the activation energy values. The frequency factor is assumed constant for the whole range of activation energy. Network models have been used to account for heat and mass transfer (diffusional effects), where the one-step and multistep could not account for these limitations. Three network models are available, the Bio-CPD (Chemical Percolation Devolatilization) model, Bio-FLASHCHAIN, and the Bio-FGDVC (Functional Group Depolymerization Vaporization Crosslinking models). These models tried to predict the product distributions of the biomass pyrolysis process


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (Vol4) ◽  
pp. 31-37
Author(s):  
Moawiya Haddad

Although most of the organochlorine pesticides have been banned from use and trade in Jordan, their residues remain still present in different environmental and food matrices. Because of the need to clarify the current status of pesticide contamination in Jordan, the present study has investigated the extent of contamination in camel milk, meat, and liver. One hundred eighty samples of camel milk, meat, and liver have been analyzed for their residual contents of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related metabolites, hexachlorohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and hexachlorobenzene. These samples were Soxhlet-extracted, cleaned up using florisil-column chromatography, and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system equipped with the electron-capture detector. Results: 31.7, 35, and 38.8% of the examined milk, meat, and liver samples, respectively, were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. In general, obtained results have confirmed that pesticide contamination is still a significant concern when speaking of environmental samples and food in Jordan. More research is needed in this ambit. The pesticide contamination appears relevant enough in camel milk and liver samples, suggesting the need for reliable maximum residue levels where absent.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (Vol4) ◽  
pp. 14-23
Author(s):  
Kamel Al-Zboon

This study aimed to determine the cement industry's impact on ambient air quality inside and around a Saudi Arabian cement plant. Air quality has assessed in terms of several indicators: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, PM10, PM2.5, ozone, and volatile organic compounds. AERMOD model was used to predict the concentrations of pollutants in the surrounding area. Results obtained revealed that the concentration of all impurities is within the standard limits for ambient air quality. In comparison with OSHA guidelines, only PM10 concentration exceeded the allowable limit. The higher concentrations of pollutants are recorded at the site closest to the plant site (S1, a housing compound located 0.8km ESE from the plant). Concentrations at the other monitoring sites decreased significantly. Except for PM10, the calculated hazard quotient (HQ) of all pollutants was <1which indicated no health effects are expected. The HQ of emissions can be ranked as: PM10> PM2.5>CO2>O3>CO>VOCs>NOx>SO2>H2S. The hazardous index (HI) was: 3.59, 2.76, 2.18, and 2.67 for S1, S2 (located 17km NNE), S3 (located 10.6km SE), and S4 (located 6.4km SSW), respectively. The affected organs can be ranked based on health risk calculation as respiratory system>cardiovascular system>Eye irritation>Allergy infection>Nervous system>Development>Hematology >Alimentary endocrine. The cancer risk factor was shallow and ranged from 4.04x10-6 for S4 to 1.88x10-5 for S1, which indicated a very low-risk potential. In terms of emissions concentrations, AERMOD predicted higher concentrations than the actual monitoring data for all measured parameters.


Author(s):  
Omar Al-Ayed ◽  
Kamel Al-Zboon ◽  
Ghassab Al-Mazaideh ◽  
Moawiya Haddad

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (Vol4) ◽  
pp. 24-30
Author(s):  
Ghassab Al-Mazaideh

DFT calculations were carried out on significant Fenugreek seed compounds (1-Methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate MPC, Apigenin-8-C-glucose ACG, and 2-Isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine IBMP) as a green source of ecologically friendly Fe, Al, and Cu metal corrosion inhibitors. Complete geometry optimizations were performed by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G* to determine any relationship between the chemical structure and corrosion inhibition, mostly on metals' surfaces. Global computational parameters of the inhibitors and thermodynamic Gibbs process of adsorption of metals were calculated and used to evaluate each corrosion inhibitor's performance. Our findings showed that MPC has the maximum anti-corrosion efficiency across all molecules with a physical adsorption mechanism. It exhibited significant inhibition efficiency with Cu when compared with Fe and Al, based on the highest electrophilicity index (ω) values compared to other inhibitors and its impact on metals in the following manner: Cu>Fe>Al. In regards, the range of inhibitors increased by the following order: IBMP>ACG>MPC. Remarkable corrosion inhibition of MPC is demonstrated by its unique high electrophilicity, softness (σ), and lowest ∆Egap on the metal surface. These outcomes are close to the experimental


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