Marijuana is considered illicit in much of the world, and is classified as a drug for recreational use, in recent decades the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. has grown and diversified, being considered the only therapeutic alternative in the control of serious and incurable diseases such as syndrome of Dravet. The world panorama has shown a more liberal position, since in several countries such as the United States of America, Holland, Australia, Italy, and more recently in Canada, the use of medications, or even the recreational use of this plant, have been regulated. In this context, the investigation of the modifying effects on physical activity of empirically used cannabinoids is fundamental nowadays, mainly due to the regulatory recognition of Cannabis sativa L. as a medicinal plant in a large part of the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to verify the evidence related to the effect of cannabis on physical performance and to identify and highlight the challenges in the interpretation of information regarding the performance of practitioners of physical activity, as well as athletes, presenting new trends in this area of research to be addressed. To carry out the systematic review, a bibliographic survey of case reports was obtained through Pubmed, Science Direct and Google Academic databases. The following keywords were used to perform the research: cannabis, performance, pain, competition. The following filters were used as inclusion criteria a languages used english; species: humans; types of articles: original articles and reviews and period of publication of articles: 1981 to 2021.
Approximately 30,000 ankle injuries occur every day in the United States. With the incidence estimated at more than 3 million a year and at a rate of 2.15/1,000 in the U.S. alone, medical specialists and other healthcare providers caring for the foot and ankle must take notice. Despite the millions of ankle injuries sustained annually, the true incidence may be underestimated, as fewer than half of individuals with ankle sprains seek medical attention from healthcare professionals. The economic burden associated with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is close to $4 billion annually. Ankle sprains account for half of all sports injuries and remains a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is critical as 40% of ankle sprains are misdiagnosed or poorly treated leading to chronic ankle pain and disability. Implementing evidence supported diagnostic and treatment strategies is the goal for ensuring safe and rapid return to play. The Lateral Ankle Sprain (LAS) is among the most common type of ankle sprains suffered during athletic activities. Up to 80% of LAS are of the inversion type, and 75% lead to recurrence and instability. Although most individuals experiencing a LAS return to activity within six weeks, many report continued pain, diminished function, and instability. The purpose of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, pathoetiology, pathoanatomy, and biomechanics of the LAS, enabling sports physicians to implement the best practice guidelines and protocols to manage this common enigma.
Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity. Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise. Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine. Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.