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Published By Research And Education Development (READ) Institute

2774-4892
Updated Friday, 22 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 80-94
Author(s):  
Saif Jabbar Yasir ◽  
Taghreed Abdul Kareem Al- Makhzoomy

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are distinguished by long incubation periods, characteristic spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss, and a failure to induce inflammatory response. Prion diseases in animals, Scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (commonly known as "mad cow disease") in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans are all examples of infectious diseases. The prion protein (PrP) was identified in a patient in 2015, and it was previously believed to be the cause of all known mammalian prion diseases. However, The protein alpha-synuclein, which is thought to be responsible for MSA, was suggested to be the cause of the disease in 2015.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 45-50
Author(s):  
Dr. Nanda Kishore Ghoshal

Ulcerations are characterized by defects in the epithelium, underlying connective tissue, or both. Due to diversity of causative factors and presenting features, diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. Tongue ulcers are open sores or cuts on the tongue. Tongue ulcers can be painful and raw and can be irritated by eating and drinking. One of the most common types of tongue ulcers is the canker sore, which may arise for an unknown reason or be linked to a number of different irritants. This article is an attempt to elaborate the treatment protocols with couple of case reports


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 76-79
Author(s):  
Sarah Ali Aljazaeri

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia results from a readiness for the bilirubin production in neonates and limited their ability to excrete it. The diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia based on yellow discoloration of the skin and whiteness of eyes, idle in the child's movement and the lack of lactation. The baby seems sick or is difficult to awaken.  Bilirubin is a tetrapyrrole pigment derived from breakdown product of normal heme catabolism in senescent red blood cells. Unconjugated bilirubin normal elevation is named newborn physiologic hyperbilirubinemia, whereas the level of bilirubin of infant normally to be a bit higher after birth, In the same context the placenta in the womb of the mother. Pathologic hyperbilirubinemia is defined as odd of bilirubin from the normal level so intervention required. Many reasons for this type of jaundice


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 45-49
Author(s):  
Nanda Ghoshal

A 37 years, the old male patient reported the chief complaint of inability to open mouth since 10-11 months and recently pain and swelling resulting from wisdom teeth of both sides limited the mouth opening severely (<9mm, less than one finger opening) that he could not take solid food properly. After partial relief and mouth opening (12mm) with antibiotic therapy, the patient was examined and diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis (osmf) along with impacted molars on both sides. Treatment was planned with a conservative approach consisted of pharmacotherapy and physiotherapy for osmf and surgical removal of impacted third molars of both sides. Mouth opening was improved gradually (>15mm after 3 weeks, >22mm after 6 weeks,>27 mm after 9 weeks).


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 71-75
Author(s):  
Noor I. Abdul-Zahra ◽  
Zahraa K. Taiban

This study was carried out in Middle Euphrates cancer center, laboratories department, Al-Najaf holy city - Iraq; Iraqi patients have been recorded during period January 2018 until December 2018. This  study has demonstrated that four different types of the following cancers: Breast cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer and Bladder cancer were registered in this study. Comparison was occured  among each type of cancer was regarded in sex,  age and number. The highest levels of cancer among all the other types were  breast and lung cancer , the majority results in cancer epidemiology for this  study, which showed 22% and 8 % respectively. While in other types, the result has showed 6%, 4.7%,for Bladder cancer, and braian cancer, respectively


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 35-44
Author(s):  
Murtadha M. Jawad

This review deals with the world's most important problem, which is hepatotoxicity. As a result of the distinctive location of the liver and its effect on all the substances entering the body and manufactured from it, the wastes resulting from metabolism, as well as its functional nature in the equation and removal of toxins. Therefore, the liver is one of the most influential and first organs in the human body because of the major functions it shows. Therefore, most of the research targets the liver through a number of chemicals, including carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is widely used, and its work depends on destroying hepatocytes through a group of chemical reactions with a group of chemical compounds for the liver such as fats and proteins, thus producing harmful substances such as free radicals, whose damage depends on the concentration and period of exposure to carbon tetrachloride. In order to determine the extent of the influence of the liver, there must be evidence. Our choice of Regucalcin was because it is closely related to several physiological functions, including: its role in maintaining the level of calcium on a regular basis in addition to its anti-programmed effects of cell death by inhibiting factors that break down the DNA strand by inhibiting the action of a group of enzymes. And other factors that destroy cells. Thus, the presence of Regucalcin inside and out of cells is evidence of the extent of damage and damage to hepatocytes and their dissolution. Therefore, Regucalcin can be considered a criterion for assessing the extent and degree of damage to the liver.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 64-70
Author(s):  
Sarah Ali Aljazaeri

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia results from a readiness for the bilirubin production in neonates and limited their ability to excrete it. The diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia based on yellow discoloration of the skin and whiteness of eyes, idle in the child's movement and the lack of lactation. The baby seems sick or is difficult to awaken. Serum cystatin-C, is a low molecular protein that belongs to the family of cysteine protease inhibitor, was proposed as an endogenous filtration marker. In this study sixty neonatal patients suffering from hyperbilirubinemia (35 males,25female) were collected from prematurity unit (PU) in Al-Zahra Educational Hospital/Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf during the period from August,2020 to February,2021. A group of 20 randomly (12male, 8female) selected apparently healthy group. After diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia, the patients were divided into three groups according to age (1-3), (4-7) and (7-9) days.  The result reveals that significant increase (p<0.05) in serum cystatin-C in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia as compared with healthy group. The result of study reveals no significant increase(p<0.05) in serum levels of cystatin-C, while the study shows a significant increase (p<0.05) between male and female in serum levels of bilirubin. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 51-63
Author(s):  
Gaung Eka Ramadhan

This study analyzes the relationship between pictorial health warnings on cigarette packaging and the intention to quit smoking for Pamulang University students. This research design uses quantitative analysis with a cross-sectional method complemented by qualitative respondents, namely Pamulang University students totaling 100 respondents. This research was conducted from December 2019 – January 2020. The data analysis used univariate analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between perceptions of pictorial health messages and the intention to stop smoking, the p-value indicated this: 0.000 and the OR value 43.5; there is a significant relationship between knowledge and intention to stop smoking with a p-value: 0.000 and OR value 75.6;


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Esraa Mohammed Kadhim

The aim of the study to estimate the antioxidant action and protecting effect of ethanolic cinnamon extract against CCl4 induced toxicity in male rats. To determine the effect of different concentrations of ethanolic cinnamon extract on male rats that fed a high cholesterol diet that induced hyperlipidemia. The experiment has been conducted in the present study., aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective, role of Cinnamomum zeylanicum ethanolic extract in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats, The cinnamon and its oil reported to have many beneficial uses in food preservation due to antioxidant of cinnamon. The Phenolic compounds extracted from cinnamon such as hydroxyl cinnamaldehyde and the hydroxycinnamic acid act as scavengers of peroxide radicals and avoid oxidative damage (Mathew and Abraham, 2006; Leela, 2008). Ranjbar et al, (2006) observed individuals consuming cinnamon tea showed increased total serum antioxidant status, increased thiols such as glutathione, NADPH, NADH, SOD, and decreased lipid peroxidation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-14
Author(s):  
Assist. Prof. Dr. Wijdan Rajh Hamza Al-Kraity ◽  
Ali Hussein Faisal ◽  
Ali Nabeel Khaleel ◽  
Mahmoud Tuama Naeaam ◽  
Ali Sattar Jabar

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a generic designation for a group of related syndromes resulting from myocardial ischemia – an imbalance between cardiac blood supply (perfusion) and myocardial oxygen demand. Visfatin (VF)  is a recently discovered adipokine with different functions, Visfatin is mainly found in visceral adipose tissue and mimics insulin in lowering plasma glucose levels and, Visfatin emerges as a player in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions by directly promoting smooth muscle cell proliferation, Aberrant angiogenesis is now considered a feature of the atherogenic process in both coronary and carotid diseases. This adipokine was previously known as a pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor   (PBEF) or  Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase or Nampt) an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAMPT gene  and demonstrated to be an intracellular protein with a key enzyme role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)


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