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Published By Research And Education Development (READ) Institute

2774-4892
Updated Saturday, 10 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 45-50
Author(s):  
Dr. Nanda Kishore Ghoshal

Ulcerations are characterized by defects in the epithelium, underlying connective tissue, or both. Due to diversity of causative factors and presenting features, diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. Tongue ulcers are open sores or cuts on the tongue. Tongue ulcers can be painful and raw and can be irritated by eating and drinking. One of the most common types of tongue ulcers is the canker sore, which may arise for an unknown reason or be linked to a number of different irritants. This article is an attempt to elaborate the treatment protocols with couple of case reports


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 45-49
Author(s):  
Nanda Ghoshal

A 37 years, the old male patient reported the chief complaint of inability to open mouth since 10-11 months and recently pain and swelling resulting from wisdom teeth of both sides limited the mouth opening severely (<9mm, less than one finger opening) that he could not take solid food properly. After partial relief and mouth opening (12mm) with antibiotic therapy, the patient was examined and diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis (osmf) along with impacted molars on both sides. Treatment was planned with a conservative approach consisted of pharmacotherapy and physiotherapy for osmf and surgical removal of impacted third molars of both sides. Mouth opening was improved gradually (>15mm after 3 weeks, >22mm after 6 weeks,>27 mm after 9 weeks).


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 35-44
Author(s):  
Murtadha M. Jawad

This review deals with the world's most important problem, which is hepatotoxicity. As a result of the distinctive location of the liver and its effect on all the substances entering the body and manufactured from it, the wastes resulting from metabolism, as well as its functional nature in the equation and removal of toxins. Therefore, the liver is one of the most influential and first organs in the human body because of the major functions it shows. Therefore, most of the research targets the liver through a number of chemicals, including carbon tetrachloride. Carbon tetrachloride is widely used, and its work depends on destroying hepatocytes through a group of chemical reactions with a group of chemical compounds for the liver such as fats and proteins, thus producing harmful substances such as free radicals, whose damage depends on the concentration and period of exposure to carbon tetrachloride. In order to determine the extent of the influence of the liver, there must be evidence. Our choice of Regucalcin was because it is closely related to several physiological functions, including: its role in maintaining the level of calcium on a regular basis in addition to its anti-programmed effects of cell death by inhibiting factors that break down the DNA strand by inhibiting the action of a group of enzymes. And other factors that destroy cells. Thus, the presence of Regucalcin inside and out of cells is evidence of the extent of damage and damage to hepatocytes and their dissolution. Therefore, Regucalcin can be considered a criterion for assessing the extent and degree of damage to the liver.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Esraa Mohammed Kadhim

The aim of the study to estimate the antioxidant action and protecting effect of ethanolic cinnamon extract against CCl4 induced toxicity in male rats. To determine the effect of different concentrations of ethanolic cinnamon extract on male rats that fed a high cholesterol diet that induced hyperlipidemia. The experiment has been conducted in the present study., aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective, role of Cinnamomum zeylanicum ethanolic extract in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats, The cinnamon and its oil reported to have many beneficial uses in food preservation due to antioxidant of cinnamon. The Phenolic compounds extracted from cinnamon such as hydroxyl cinnamaldehyde and the hydroxycinnamic acid act as scavengers of peroxide radicals and avoid oxidative damage (Mathew and Abraham, 2006; Leela, 2008). Ranjbar et al, (2006) observed individuals consuming cinnamon tea showed increased total serum antioxidant status, increased thiols such as glutathione, NADPH, NADH, SOD, and decreased lipid peroxidation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-14
Author(s):  
Assist. Prof. Dr. Wijdan Rajh Hamza Al-Kraity ◽  
Ali Hussein Faisal ◽  
Ali Nabeel Khaleel ◽  
Mahmoud Tuama Naeaam ◽  
Ali Sattar Jabar

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a generic designation for a group of related syndromes resulting from myocardial ischemia – an imbalance between cardiac blood supply (perfusion) and myocardial oxygen demand. Visfatin (VF)  is a recently discovered adipokine with different functions, Visfatin is mainly found in visceral adipose tissue and mimics insulin in lowering plasma glucose levels and, Visfatin emerges as a player in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions by directly promoting smooth muscle cell proliferation, Aberrant angiogenesis is now considered a feature of the atherogenic process in both coronary and carotid diseases. This adipokine was previously known as a pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor   (PBEF) or  Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase or Nampt) an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAMPT gene  and demonstrated to be an intracellular protein with a key enzyme role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-24
Author(s):  
Murtadha M. Jawad

The present study was aimed efficiency to evaluate the unsaturated fatty acid omega-3 in reducing the side effects that resulted from the administration of cyclosporine drug in white rabbits. (60) white males' rabbits were used in this study, divided into four groups contain (15) rabbits per group and its subdivision into three groups (5) rabbits per group. The first group is orally administered with normal saline, the second group was administered cyclosporine (25mg/kg) only. Third groups were administered cyclosporine on the first day and omega-3 (500mg/kg) on the second day, while Fourth groups were administered cyclosporine on the first day and omega-3 (1000mg/kg) on the second day for periods (21,30,60) days respectively. After ending study periods, the animals were sacrificed and the blood was collected and the results were shown the following:  Administration with cyclosporine (25mg/kg)only and for periods were led to a significant increase(P<0.05) in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein(LDL) and a significant decrease(P<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein(HDL).whereas interaction with (500&1000mg/kg) of omega-3 and to all periods showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein(LDL) and significant decrease(p<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein(HDL), while the non-significant difference in high-density lipoprotein(HDL). This study concluded that omega-3 has an important role in reducing biochemistry side effects that result from the administration of cyclosporine drugs in white rabbits.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-28
Author(s):  
Dr. Zainab Sajid Mohammed

This study was conducted at the laboratory of histology and anatomy, Faculty of Medical and Health Techniques/Kufa, and laboratory of post Graduate/ Department of biology, Faculty of Science/University of Kufa, The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Prazosin hydrochloride on some organs in male rats (Rattus norvegicus), about 25  mature male rats with the average body weight of 210-290gram and three months age were randomly divided into four groups (5rats / group). The first group was given orally with distilled water as a control group and the other groups (second, third, and fourth) were also given orally with three doses of Prazosin (25, 50,75 mg /kg. b.wt.) daily for a period of eight weeks.  At the end of the treatment period (eight weeks), rats were sacrificed, blood samples obtained, and organs lung, and spleen. The histopathological changes of lungs in the rats treated with prazosin at dose 25 mg/kg.b.wt for 8-weeks showed emphysema and dilation in some of the alveoli, hemorrhage distributed inside the tissue of the lung, polymorphic nuclear infiltration due to pneumonia, the pulmonary artery revealed degenerative changes in the tunica media structure (smooth muscle) and hyperplasia in the connective tissue around pulmonary artery and alveoli. These symptoms which occur in rats treated with prazosin at dose 50 and 75 mg/kg b.wt. as well as the histopathological changes of rat lung demonstrate severe hemorrhage, emphysema, thickening in the wall of some alveoli, pneumocyte necrosis (pneumocyte type 1 and pneumocyte type 2), and showed exudate among lung tissue. Histopathological changes of Spleen in the rats treated with prazosin at doses(50 and75)mg/kg b.w. for 8-weeks revealed histopathological changes, which represented by proliferation in the white pulp lead to fused white pulp together and destruction of some components of red pulp, stenosis in many splenic venous sinuses, the germinal artery show thickening in the tunica media and stenosis occurs, degenerative change in many nuclei of lymphocytes, and proliferation in the component of the white pulp.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-34
Author(s):  
Hassanein Fadel Mohammed ◽  
Sarah Hassan Jaber

This study for the diagnosis of thyroid using pcsk9.The current study was conducted on seventy women patients suffering from thyroid disease attending in Center for diabetes and Endocrinology Unit in each of Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital and AL FURAT AL AWSAT Hospital in Al-Najaf province/ Iraq, and during the period from September until December 2017. The sample patients were divided into four study groups: premenopausal hypothyroidism patients group (20), postmenopausal hypothyroidism (15), premenopausal hyperthyroidism patients groups (17), and postmenopausal hyperthyroidism (18). The control group composed of 18 healthy women, also divided into premenopausal control and postmenopausal control.  The results indicated a significant increase (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in hypothyroidism patients compared with the control group, while a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in hyperthyroidism patients compared with the control group.  The results indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in premenopausal hyperthyroidism patients compared with the control group, and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in postmenopausal hyperthyroidism patients compared with the control group. The results indicated a significant increase (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in premenopausal hypothyroidism patients compared with the control group, and a significant increase (p<0.05) in pcsk9 in the postmenopausal hypothyroidism patients compared with the control group, also a significant increase in pcsk9 in postmenopausal than premenopausal.


2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (01) ◽  
pp. 7-11
Author(s):  
Dr. Hawraa Natiq Kabroot Al-Fatlawy ◽  
Khwla Abd Al Kadhem Rahi ◽  
Diaa Sarhan Abd Al Zahra ◽  
Samara Rahem Hudud ◽  
Hussein Ali Hussein ◽  
...  

Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that evolved within the past few decades and played a substantial role in the environment, industry, agriculture, and pharmacology. Nanoparticles are generally classified based on their dimensionality, morphology, composition, uniformity, and agglomeration. The shape, and morphology of nanoparticles play an essential role in their functionality and toxic effect on the environment and humans. In this review, we discuss the biosynthesis of nanoparticles from microbes. For the biological synthesis of nanoparticles, microbes have been exploited all over the globe. Microbes like bacteria, fungi, and yeasts are mostly preferred for nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis because of their fast growth rate, easy cultivation, and their ability to grow at ambient conditions of temperature, pH, and pressure. Applications of Nanoparticles is a field of research with tremendous prospects for the improvement of the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. Microbial nanoparticles are found to have vigorous antibacterial activities. The nanoparticles' efficiency is probably due to their larger surface area for enhanced interaction with the micro-organisms. Nanoparticles adhere to the cell membrane and further penetrate inside by interacting with DNA, thereby interfering with the replication process or may attack the respiratory chain of pathogens. A similar bactericidal mechanism of silver nanoparticles obtained from endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus was observed against pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


2020 ◽  
Vol 1 (01) ◽  
pp. 25-28
Author(s):  
Hasanain Fadhil Mohammed ◽  
Sarah Hassan Jaber ◽  
Ali Jabbar Al-Zubaidi

The aim of this study is to asses PIIINP, lipid profile and BMI serum levels in patients with hypertension. The current research The results were Get it from the Draw Blood unity in Al-Sadder infirmary Teaching , Al-Najaf, Iraq, And AL HAKEEM General infirmary in AL-Najaf, Iraq, in 10 Dec 2018 – 19 Jan 2019. Age of hypertensive patients from 40 to Age 70 Normal blood pressure 40 to 70 years. The score show, serious increase (p<0.05) in PIIINP compared with control groups in patients with hypertension. For female patients, the findings of the reported substantially increased (p<0.05) for PIIINP relative to male patient groups. The findings showed a substantial increase (p<0.05) in PIIINP in age (60-70) relative to age (50-59) and (40-49) and increased substantially (p<0.05) in PIIINP in age (50-59) relative to age (40-49); The results showed significant differences in BMI between the hypertensive and the normotensive


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