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Updated Thursday, 02 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 587-597
Godwin Asukwo Ebong ◽  
Richard Christopher John

Water and sediment samples from Cross River, Imo River, and Qua Iboe River Estuaries were collected and treated using standard analytical procedures. The samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties, total hydrocarbon content (THC), and trace metals. Results obtained revealed that, the mean levels of total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, colour, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), THC, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in water were higher than their acceptable limits in Nigeria. Whereas, the mean levels water pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, and copper (Cu) were within their acceptable limits. The results obtained also revealed that, the mean levels of nitrate, THC, and Fe in sediments were higher than their recommended limits. While the levels of pH, EC, sulphate, phosphate, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sediments were within their recommended limits. This study indicated that the anthropogenic activities by oil and oil-related companies within the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria may have contributed significantly to the high level of toxic substances in the water channels within the zone. The results obtained revealed that, the direct or indirect exposure to untreated water from the studied water channels may result in serious health challenges. Hence, the environment should be closely monitored to forestall a devastating situation in the region.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 567-573
Kaiyu Pan ◽  
Lianfang Yu ◽  
Chengyue Zhang ◽  
Jianhua Zhan ◽  
Rongliang Tu

Gut microbiota can influence cell differentiation, metabolism, and immune function and is key for the normal development and future health of early infants. Several factors have been reported to be related to the microbiota composition of neonates, such as gestational age, delivery mode, feeding method, antibiotics consumption, and ethnicity, among others. So we investigated the relationship between gestational age and the composition and predicted function of the gut microbiota of neonates and early infants by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene present in stool samples obtained from 100 prospectively enrolled full-term and preterm newborns. In the 3-day-old neonates samples, the prominent genera in the full-term group were Escherichia-Shigella, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides, while in the preterm group, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia-Shigella and Clostridium were the most abundant genera identified. There were statistical difference between two groups(P<0.05). Moreover, the predominant genera in the full-term group were Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium , whereas the main genera in the preterm group were Escherichia-Shigella, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides, in stool samples from 30-42-day-old infants. We found the α-diversity in 3-day-old group was significantly lower than in the 30-42-day-old group whether it’s full-term or preterm (P<0.001). Functional inference analysis revealed higher levels of biodegradation and metabolism of carbohydrates, vitamins in the full-term group than in the preterm group, both in neonates and early infants, which may contribute to the stability of the microbiota in the full-term group. There were significant differences in the composition and predicted function of the gut microbiota of early infants due to gestational age. The 16S sequencing technology was an effective and reliable tool in the detection of gut microbiota in early infants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 555-558
Awopola Ibiebelem Jumbo ◽  
Esther Ijeoma Nonye-Enyidah

Background: Anencephaly is a rare but lethal congenital anomaly of the neural tube. Ideally, the diagnosis is made early in pregnancy and the pregnancy is usually terminated. This is to prevent avoidable complications during pregnancy and childbirth as well as the accompanying psychological trauma from late intrauterine foetal death or death during the neonatal period. Objective: To report a case of anencephaly in an unbooked primipara at 35 weeks gestation. Methods: The case note of the patient and how she was managed were reviewed. A relevant review of the literature on the subject was also done. Case report: Mrs A.N was a 22year old unbooked G3P1+1 who was referred to the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) on the 4th of September, 2021 with a three-day history of bleeding per vaginam and an ultrasound scan report of an absent cranium and club foot at 35weeks gestation. She resided in a rural area and was on herbal medication in the index pregnancy. She did not receive routine antenatal medications and had no family history of congenital malformations. She had an induction of labour at presentation and delivered a severely asphyxiated male anencephalic baby weighing 2.0kg. The baby died 9minutes after delivery. Conclusion: Anencephaly is a lethal anomaly that is associated with folic acid deficiency. Despite available diagnostic tools, most women in rural areas lack access to antenatal care and will have a late diagnosis and increased morbidity. Thus, there is a need to improve access to antenatal care for women in rural communities, as well as supplement food with folic acid for women in the reproductive age group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 574-586
Michael Igbaekemen Okoruwa ◽  
Emmanuel Eromosele Ikheloa ◽  
Debola Olusegun Oshibanjo

The study was conducted to determine the effect of cabbage and carrot wastes supplementation on performance, blood chemistry, carcass and economic evaluation of sheep. Twenty four West African dwarf male sheep of about 8 – 9 months old with average initial weight of 9.00 ± 0.94kg were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with six sheep per treatment, in a completely randomized design. The sheep received 60% guinea grass and 40% concentrate diet for TD1 (control group), while 50% guinea grass and 40% concentrate diet with either 10% cabbage waste, 5% cabbage plus 5% carrot wastes or 10% carrot waste were for diets TD2, TD3 and TD4 respectively. The results showed that sheep on TD1 were significantly (p<0.05) higher in feed conversion ratio, creatinine, urea, rumen with intestine and total fixed cost. Diet TD2 was significantly (p<0.05) improved in daily weight gain, digestibility of dry matter, crude protein with fiber and nitrogen free extract, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, total protein, albumin, glucose, dressing percentage, sale of sheep, total revenue and net profit. Red blood cell, cholesterol and triglyceride were increased significantly (p<0.05) in TD3, while daily feed intake, digestibility of ash, feed cost and total variable cost were better in TD4. Meanwhile, no significant difference (p>0.05) was found in initial body weight, ether extract digestibility, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, globulin and some relative organs weight among sheep on treatments. It can be concluded that inclusion level of 10% cabbage waste as supplement to 50% guinea grass and 40% concentrate diet (TD2) improved performance, health status and carcass indices of sheep with reduced cost that resulted in higher net profit.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 603-615
Tansel Kaygısız Aşçıoğul ◽  
Bülent Yağmur ◽  
Mehmet Kadri Bozokalfa ◽  
Dursun Eşiyok

The objective of the present work was to evaluate variability for dry matter, protein and mineral N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), K (potassium), Ca (calcium), Mg (magnesium) composition of nutritionally important and widely consumed wild edible plants in Aegean region of Turkey, and to assess their mineral diversity using multivariate analysis. The plant material comprises 17 edible plants collected from native found, the data were subject to analysis of variance, and a Pearson correlation test used to determine the correlations between dry matter, protein content and N, P, K, Ca, Mg composition. Principal component analysis was performed on the result of examine compositions and the factor loadings, eigenvalues and percentage of cumulative variance were calculated, the patterns of relationships among nutritive element were shown three-dimension scatter plot. Multivariate analysis revealed considerable variation for the most of concentration and explained 81.49% of total variation accounted for three PC axes. The data reveal that selected wild plant provide significant nutrition and exhibited great variability among the species. Although soil mineral concentration, availability, fertilization and environment may have influenced on nutrient accumulation in plant tissue, genetic variability is considerable influenced on mineral composition of plant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 510-517
Lamatinulu ◽  
Ahmad Fadhil ◽  
Nurhayati Rauf ◽  

Maccon Generasi Mandiri Makassar company is one of a manufacturing company engaged in the production of light brick AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete). PT. Maccon Generasi Mandiri Makassar has a production capacity of 15024 〖 m〗^3 in a month or 180288 〖 m〗^3 in a year. However, with this capacity, the company is often unable to meet high consumer demand of 181450 〖 m〗^3 in a year due to less than optimal engine performance, a number of hours of work and an unbalanced workforce in the producing light brick of ACC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete). This requires the company to plan the optimal production of capacity in order to fulfill the consumer demand in a timely and appropriate amount so that the expected of company profits will be increased. The purpose of this research is to plan production capacity in the future based on the demand rate of the consumer using the Rough Cut Capacity Planning (RCCP) with the method is Bill of Labor Approach (BOLA) technique. Based on the data processing which has been done, the recommended made were a combination of engine additions and working time. This is realized to fulfill the lack of production capacity. For the January Period = 19872 hours/month, February = 19008 hours/month, March = 19872 hours/month, April = 19008 hours/month, May = 18144 hours/month, June = 18144 hours/month, July = 19872 hour/month, August = 18144 hours/month, September = 17280 hours/month, October = 18144 hours/month, November = 18144 hours/month, December = 17280 hours/month.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 518-525
Castañeda Cataña MA ◽  
Sepúlveda CS ◽  
Carlucci MJ

According to Mayan cosmology, the law of time is represented as the energy factored by time equals to art. Time is a form of biological information. Time in-forms life, in such a way that life forms processes time as information and externalize it specific forms into the three-dimensional world, then time is the principle ordering of life. Indeed, everything in the natural order of the cosmos is beauty and harmony. All life forms on planet earth have their phases of morphological development, this is real even in the social structure of communities of living beings that also may have an aesthetic or artistic quality. This form and measurements of all things constitutes the entire or holistic order of the universe. So, if life is it nothing more than better-informed matter, where does this information come from? Socrates and Platon held that nothing in nature and in the world can be explained by random or chance, as Democritus would have argued, that nature creations occur because they have a Purpose. According to Platon, the natural world is a designer’s result demiurge or a universal consciousness that sets everything in the best possible place. So, if there is a start point where intelligence creates order, where there is order, there is purpose so; what is the purpose then? This work tends to give an answer and show a different perspective of living, studying and understanding (micro)biological phenomena in order to become conscious and assume that Nature is infinitely more powerful than us, the Whole is more than the sum of parts, we are part of it.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 559-566
Mouhamadou Bachir Ba ◽  
Papa Macoumba Gaye ◽  
Franck Aurélien Chouamou Cheumaga ◽  
Fatimatou Néné Sarr ◽  
Yakhya Cissé ◽  

Craniopharyngioma is a rare benign epithelial tumor, originating in the pituitary stem or pituitary gland and developing in the sellar and / or suprasellar region. Of embryonic origin, craniopharyngiomas are considered to develop from epithelial remains of Rathke's pouch. It affects children as well as adults. All ages combined, craniopharyngiomas represent between 3 to 4% of intracranial tumors worldwide, or 0.5 to 2 new cases per year and per million inhabitants. In children, they represent 10% of all intracranial tumors with a peak frequency between 7 and 13 years and a predominance of men. Although benign, this tumor remains a serious pathology because of the frequent visual, endocrine, neuro-intellectual sequelae and the risk of recurrence that it entails, involving the visual and vital functional.The management of this pathology is multidisciplinary and involves several modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy and medical treatment of hormonal deficits very often associated. We report in this article three cases of boys aged 9, 10 and 12; treated for symptomatic craniopharyngiomas with a favorable clinical and radiological outcome after partial surgical excision and adjuvant external radiotherapy. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of these benign tumors of the sellar and / or suprasellar region, with an emphasis on the interest of radiotherapeutic treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 539-543
Christos Iliadis ◽  
Aikaterini Frantzana ◽  
Kiriaki Tachtsoglou ◽  
Maria Lera ◽  
Petros Ouzounakis

Introduction: The quality of health care services is one of the most frequently mentioned terms and concepts regarding principles of health policy and it is currently high on the agenda of National, European and International policy makers. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive review is to investigate the correlation between quality in health services and the promotion of health care quality provided by health services. Methodology: The study material consisted of recent articles on the subject mainly found in the Medline electronic database and the Hellenic Academic Libraries Association (HEAL-Link). Results: The clinical quality of services is often difficult to be assessed by "clients" even after the service has been provided. This is due to the fact that customers experience illness, pain, uncertainty, fear and perceived lack of control. Thus, clients may be reluctant to "co-produce" because healthcare is a service they need while they may not want it and because the risk to harm their health is prominent. In the field of healthcare management, patients' perception refers to perceived quality, as opposed to the actual or absolute quality that requires critical management. This is why health care managers face constant pressure to provide qualitative health services. Conclusions: Continuous monitoring of health care services for quality assessment is essential, hence, the evaluation of patients' perceptions of quality of healthcare, has received considerable attention in recent years.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 616-620
Anderson U. Ezeibe ◽  
Emmanuel C. Nleonu ◽  
Kelechi G. Ubaka ◽  
Nadia Arrousse ◽  
Brandy O. Nleonu

Density and viscosity of binary liquid mixtures of household kerosene (HHK) and premium motor spirit (PMS) were determined over the entire range of mole fraction at 303K. Excess molar volume (VE), molar volume (Vm), Excess Viscosity (ηE), Viscosity deviations (Δη) and excess Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow (ΔGE) were calculated. The results obtained shows that excess free energy of activation were all positive over the entire mole fraction. The viscosity deviation shows both negative and positive values. The positive VE obtained in this study shows increase in volume in the binary mixture. This work will help in effective monitoring, detection of adulterated kerosene and subsequent enforcement of severe penalty on such adulteration.

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