Journal of Experimental Botany
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Published By Oxford University Press

1460-2431, 0022-0957
Updated Saturday, 23 October 2021

Yanjun Song ◽  
Lourens Poorter ◽  
Angelina Horsting ◽  
Sylvain Delzon ◽  
Frank Sterck

Abstract Conifers face increased drought mortality risks because of drought-induced embolism in their vascular system. Variation in embolism resistance may result from species differences in pit structure and function, as pits control the air seeding between water transporting conduits. This study quantifies variation in embolism resistance and hydraulic conductivity for 28 conifer species grown in a 50-year-old common garden experiment and assesses the underlying mechanisms. Conifer species with a small pit aperture, high pit aperture resistance and large valve effect were more resistant to embolism, as they all may reduce air seeding. Surprisingly, hydraulic conductivity was only negatively correlated with tracheid cell wall thickness. Embolism resistance and its underlying pit traits related to pit size and sealing were stronger phylogenetically controlled than hydraulic conductivity and anatomical tracheid traits. Conifers differed in hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency, but there was no trade-off between safety and efficiency because they are driven by different xylem anatomical traits that are under different phylogenetic control.

Aigerim Soltabayeva ◽  
Aizat Bekturova ◽  
Assylay Kurmanbayeva ◽  
Dinara Oshanova ◽  
Zhadyrassyn Nurbekova ◽  

Abstract To examine a role of purine degraded metabolites in response to wounding or UV-C stress, the Arabidopsis wild-type (WT) and Atxdh1 KO mutants, defective in xanthine dehydrogenase1 (XDH1), were exposed to wounding and UV-C irradiation stress. In Atxdh1 mutant, wounding or UV-C stresses resulted in lower fresh-weight, increased senescence symptoms and higher tissue cell death rate compared to WT plants. Additionally, WT plants exhibited lower levels of oxidative stress indicators; reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde than Atxdh1 mutant leaves. Notably, Transcripts and Proteins functioning in purine degradation pathway were orchestrated to lead to enhanced ureide levels in WT leaves 24 h after applying UV-C or wound stress. Yet, different remobilization of the accumulated ureides was noticed 72 h after stresses application. In plants treated with UV-C the allantoin level was highest in young leaves, whereas in wounded plants it was lowest in the young leaves, accumulated mainly in the middle and wounded leaves. The results indicate that in UV-C treated WT plants, during the recovery period from stress, ureides are remobilized from the lower older leaves to support young leaf growth. In contrast, after wounding, the ureides are remobilized to the young leaves, yet more to the middle wounded leaves, to function as antioxidants and/or healing agents.

Thiruvenkadam Shanmugam ◽  
Deniz Streit ◽  
Frank Schroll ◽  
Jelena Kovacevic ◽  
Enrico Schleiff

Abstract Ribosome biogenesis is a constitutive fundamental process for cellular function. Its rate of production depends on the rate of maturation of precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA). The rRNA maturation paths are marked by four dominant rate-limiting intermediates with cell-type variation of the processivity rate. We have identified that high temperature stress in plants, while halting the existing pre-rRNA maturation schemes, also transiently triggers an atypical pathway for 35S pre-rRNA processing. This pathway leads to production of an aberrant precursor rRNA, reminiscent of yeast 24S, encompassing 18S and 5.8S rRNA that do not normally co-occur together at sub-unit levels; this response is elicited specifically by high and not low temperatures. We show this response to be conserved in two other model crop plant species (Rice and Tomato). This pathway persists even after returning to normal growth conditions for 1 hour and is reset between 1-6 hours after stress treatment, likely, due to resumption of normal 35S pre-rRNA synthesis and processing. The heat-induced ITS2 cleavage-derived precursors and stalled P-A2-like precursors were heterogeneous in nature with a fraction containing polymeric (A) tails. Furthermore, high temperature treatment and subsequent fractionation resulted in polysome and precursor rRNA depletion.

Nasreldin Mohemed ◽  
Tatsiana Charnikhova ◽  
Emilie F Fradin ◽  
Juriaan Rienstra ◽  
Abdelgabar G T Babiker ◽  

Giuliana Hessler ◽  
Stephan Michael Portheine ◽  
Eva-Maria Gerlach ◽  
Tim Lienemann ◽  
Gerald Koch ◽  

Abstract Plants possess a well-balanced immune system that is required for defense against pathogen infections. In autoimmune mutants or necrotic crosses, an intrinsic temperature-dependent imbalance leads to constitutive immune activation, resulting in severe damage or even death of plants. Recently, cell wall depositions were described as one of the symptoms following induction of the autoimmune phenotype in Arabidopsis saul1-1 mutants. However, the regulation and function of these depositions remained unclear. Here, we show that cell wall depositions, containing lignin and callose, were a common autoimmune feature and were deposited in proportion to the severity of the autoimmune phenotype at reduced ambient temperatures. When plants were exposed to reduced temperature for periods insufficient to induce an autoimmune phenotype, the cell wall depositions were not present. After low temperature intervals, sufficient to induce autoimmune responses, cell wall depositions correlated with a point of no return in saul1-1 autoimmunity. Although cell wall depositions were largely abolished in saul1-1 pmr4-1 double mutants lacking SAUL1 and the callose synthase gene GSL5/PMR4, their phenotype remained unchanged compared to that of the saul1-1 single mutant. Our data showed that cell wall depositions generally occur in autoimmunity, but appear not to be the cause of autoimmune phenotypes.

Jan Xue ◽  
Pallinti Purushotham ◽  
Justin F Acheson ◽  
Ruoya Ho ◽  
Jochen Zimmer ◽  

Abstract In land plants and algae, cellulose is important for strengthening cell walls and preventing breakage due to physical forces. Though our understanding of cellulose production by cellulose synthase enzymes (CESAs) has seen significant advances for several land plant and bacterial species, functional characterization of this fundamental protein is absent in red algae. Here we identify CESA gene candidates in the calcifying red alga Calliarthron tuberculosum (Ct) using sequence similarity-based approaches and elucidate their phylogenetic relationship with other CESAs from diverse taxa. One gene candidate, CtCESA1, was closely related to other putative red algal CESAs. To test if CtCESA1 encoded a true cellulose synthase, CtCESA1 protein was expressed and purified from insect and yeast expression systems. CtCESA1 showed glucan synthase activity in glucose tracer assays. CtCESA1 activity was relatively low when compared to plant and bacterial CESA activity. In an in vitro assay, a predicted N-terminal starch-binding domain from CtCESA1 bound red algal floridean starch extracts, representing a unique domain in red algal CESAs not present in CESAs from other lineages. When the CtCESA1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana cesa mutants, the red algal CtCESA1 partially rescued the growth defects of the primary cell wall cesa6 mutant, but not cesa3 or secondary cell wall cesa7 mutants. A fluorescently tagged CtCESA1 localized to the plasma membrane in the Arabidopsis cesa6 mutant background. This study presents functional evidence validating the sequence annotation of red algal cellulose synthases. The relatively low activity of CtCESA1, partial complementation in Arabidopsis, and presence of unique protein domains suggest that there are likely functional differences between the algal and land plant CESAs.

Roberta Dainese ◽  
Bruna de Carvalho Faria Lima Lopes ◽  
Giuseppe Tedeschi ◽  
Laurent J Lamarque ◽  
Sylvain Delzon ◽  

Abstract The Pressure Chamber, the most popular method used to measure xylem water potential, is a discontinuous and destructive technique and therefore not suitable for automated monitoring. Continuous non-destructive monitoring could only be achieved until very recently via the Thermocouple Psychrometer (TP). We here present the High-Capacity Tensiometer (HCT) as alternative method for continuous non-destructive monitoring. This provided us with a unique chance to cross-validate the two instruments by installing them simultaneously on the same sapling stem. The HCT and the TP showed excellent agreement for xylem water potential < -0.5 MPa. Response to day/night cycles and watering was remarkably in phase, indicating excellent response time of both instruments despite substantially different working principles. For xylem water potential > -0.5 MPa, the discrepancies sometimes observed between the HCT and TP were mainly attributed to the kaolin paste used to establish contact between the xylem and the HCT, which becomes hydraulically poorly conductive in this range of water potential once dried beyond its air-entry value and subsequently re-wetted. Notwithstanding this limitation, which can be overcome by selecting a clay paste with higher air-entry value, the HCT has been shown to represent a valid alternative to the TP.

Samuel A McInturf ◽  
Mather A Khan ◽  
Arun Gokul ◽  
Norma A Castro-Guerrero ◽  
Ricarda Hoehner ◽  

Abstract Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient whose uptake is tightly regulated to prevent either deficiency or toxicity. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that induces both Fe-deficiency and toxicity; however, the mechanisms behind these Fe/Cd-induced responses are still elusive. Here we explored Cd and Fe-associated responses in wildtype Arabidopsis and in a mutant that over-accumulates iron (opt3-2). Gene expression profiling revealed a large overlap between transcripts induced by Fe deficiency and Cd exposure. Interestingly, the use of opt3-2 allowed us to identify additional gene clusters originally induced by Cd in wildtype but repressed in the opt3-2 background. Based on the high levels of H2O2 found in opt3-2 we propose a model where reactive oxygen species prevent the induction of genes that are induced in wildtype by either Fe deficiency or Cd. Interestingly, a defined cluster of Fe-responsive genes was found to be insensitive to this negative feedback, suggesting that their induction by Cd is more likely the result of an impaired Fe sensing. Overall, our data suggest that Fe-deficiency responses are governed by multiple inputs and that a hierarchical regulation of Fe homeostasis prevents the induction of specific networks when Fe and H2O2 levels are elevated.

Fangyan Zheng ◽  
Long Cui ◽  
Changxing Li ◽  
Qingmin Xie ◽  
Guo Ai ◽  

Abstract Trichomes are specialized glandular or non-glandular structures that provide physical or chemical protection against insect and pathogens attack. Trichomes in Arabidopsis, as typical non-glandular structures, have been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism underlying glandular trichome formation and elongation still remains largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that Hair (H) is essential for the formation of type I and type VI trichomes. Here, we found that overexpression of H increased the density and length of tomato trichomes. We revealed that H physically interacts with its close homolog SlZFP8-like (SlZFP8L) and SlZFP8L also directly interacts with Woolly (Wo) by biochemical assays. SlZFP8L overexpression plants showed increased trichome density and length. We further found that the expression of SlZFP6, encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein, is positively regulated by H. We identified that SlZFP6, is a direct target of H through ChIP-qPCR, Y1H, and LUC assays. Similar to H and SlZFP8L, the overexpression of SlZFP6 also increased the density and length of tomato trichomes. Taken together, our results suggest that H interacts with SlZFP8-like to regulate the initiation and elongation of trichomes by modulating SlZFP6 expression in tomato.

Anzhela Migur ◽  
Florian Heyl ◽  
Janina Fuss ◽  
Afshan Srikumar ◽  
Bruno Huettel ◽  

Abstract RNA helicases play crucial functions in RNA biology. In plants, RNA helicases are encoded by large gene families, performing roles in abiotic stress responses, development, the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression as well as house-keeping functions. Several of these RNA helicases are targeted to the organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cyanobacteria are the direct evolutionary ancestors of plant chloroplasts. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 encodes a single DEAD-box RNA helicase, CrhR, that is induced by a range of abiotic stresses, including low temperature. Though the ΔcrhR mutant exhibits a severe cold-sensitive phenotype, the physiological function(s) performed by CrhR have not been described. To identify transcripts interacting with CrhR, we performed RNA co-immunoprecipitation with extracts from a Synechocystis crhR deletion mutant expressing the FLAG-tagged native CrhR or a K57A mutated version with an anticipated enhanced RNA binding. The composition of the interactome was strikingly biased towards photosynthesis-associated and redox-controlled transcripts. A transcript highly enriched in all experiments was the crhR mRNA, suggesting an auto-regulatory molecular mechanism. The identified interactome explains the described physiological role of CrhR in response to the redox poise of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and characterizes CrhR as an enzyme with a diverse range of transcripts as molecular targets.

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