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Author(s):  
Rajesh Kumar Gupta ◽  
Preety Gupta ◽  
Shivani Gupta ◽  
Sumit Garg

The Covid sickness 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic, which started in Wuhan, China, has now influenced in excess of 100 nations around the world. In the light of the WHO pronouncing COVID‑19 as a general wellbeing crisis of worldwide worry, notwithstanding worldwide endeavors to contain the executioner sickness, the cases are as yet expanding because of local area spread. Covid or the extreme intense respiratory condition Covid is available plentifully in the tainted individual's salivary and nasopharyngeal emissions. The virus happens effectively through these beads, which are obvious in any dental center. Be that as it may, the dental facilities are open for crisis medicines. The point of this article is to give a look into the effect of COVID‑19 on dentistry in India.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward Boyle

PurposeThis article examines the borders of memory inherent to a Japanese World Heritage site, and their significance for the 2020 opening of the Industrial Heritage Information Center in Tokyo. The Center was constructed to disseminate information regarding the widely dispersed “Sites of Japan's Meiji Industrial Revolution”, which was recognized as a “serial site” by UNESCO in 2015. As with the original nomination, the opening of this Centre resulted in stringent protests from South Korea, who sought to have UNESCO consider revoking its original listing of these 23 Industrial Sites as collectively constituting the heritage of the world. This Center materializes a “border of memory” between Japan and South Korea that is the outcome of the displacement and re-siting of the heritage associated with Japan's Meiji Industrial Sites.Design/methodology/approachResearch material is derived from nomination documents, site visits, and newspaper reports in order to contextualize and analyse the disputes associated with this particular World Heritage nomination.FindingsThe paper points to how the borders of memory present at heritage sites may shift through contestation. Efforts to fix the meaning of heritage find themselves subverted by connections across such borders of memory.Originality/valueThe paper traces the process by which the geographically-dispersed “Sites of Japan's Meiji Industrial Revolution” have been collectivized through UNESCO's recognition into a single “border of memory” between Japan and Korea, one which the Information Center subsequently succeeded in materializing and reproducing within Japan's national capital.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (19) ◽  
pp. 151-165
Author(s):  
Ismail Tas

Although there are different opinions on climate variability and global warming, it is a common idea in all hypotheses that water will become even more scarce. The water used in the production of paddy, which is one of the most important food sources for the majority of the population in the world, is too much due to the irrigation method. The average global water footprint of paddy production is reported as 1.391 billion m3/year. Considering this amount, it can be seen that paddy has an enormous environmental footprint. Excessive water use causes both waste of scarce resource water and numerous environmental problems during production. The most important reason for flooded production is the ability of paddy to grow/develop in water and to have a less competitive capacity with weeds. However, when rice is grown with drip irrigation, which is one of the irrigation methods that save water with high efficiency, significant increases in both yield and quality occur. Studies are showing that 50-74.6% water saving is achieved in paddy production with drip irrigation depending on the region, climate, soil, variety, producer habits, and similar situations. In addition, the cost of one kilogram of paddy produced in the drip irrigation system in the conditions of Canakkale province of Turkey has been calculated as 0.35 $. This value has been calculated as 0.44 $ in the flooded method. In addition, methane, carbon dioxide, and Nitrous oxide emissions are significantly reduced due to the transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions. In this way, greenhouse gas emissions, other environmental negative effects, and especially groundwater pollution caused by paddy production can be reduced.


Mäetagused ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 80 ◽  
pp. 155-184
Author(s):  
Nikolai Anisimov ◽  
◽  
Eva Toulouze ◽  
◽  

In Udmurt culture sleep (iz’on, kölon, um) as well as dreams (vöt, uyvöt) have occupied a significant place. According to ordinary understandings, dreams are not subjected to this world’s rules of time and space: in a dream, places and spaces may suddenly change, and time moves quickly, or it does not move at all; it has stopped. Sleep and dreams are not thoroughly explained phenomena, and as such, they play a significant role in the communication between the world of the living and the world of the deities (spirits). Their importance is confirmed by the rules one has to follow when going to bed. The dream becomes a sacred space, in which it is possible to acquire sacred knowledge and skills. The narratives we are acquainted with tell us that during sleep one of the person’s souls, called urt, can fly away. Probably this is the reason why it is forbidden to suddenly awake a person sleeping: they may not wake up at all or may even lose their reason. Earlier the Udmurt even organised special rituals to catch the second soul. In the Udmurt culture, sleep and dreams constitute a non-real space, in which the living and the dead are able to meet and communicate. The initiators of the dreams can be both the living and the dead, in different situations. Through dreams, the dead are able to transmit to the living their wishes, their knowledge about events or accidents to come; they may complain about certain circumstances, etc. Today, the Udmurt are attentive to all dreams; they see in them signs connected to the real world and given from above, and they must be considered in order not to disturb the balance between the worlds.


Mäetagused ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 80 ◽  
pp. 31-70
Author(s):  
Bianka Makoid ◽  
◽  
Airi Liimets ◽  

In this article, we have set ourselves a goal to identify how the conceptions of education contained in Estonian proverbs coincide with the corresponding educational thought in Estonia. We have empirically studied 655 Estonian proverbs that directly refer to a child, growing up, upbringing and parents as well as the methods of education. In the empirical research, we look at whether and how it is possible to semantically categorize and define proverbs based on the educational meanings in their content. To have a clearer system for analysis, we created a comprehensive scheme of categories. The four main categories with subcategories formed during the work. As can be concluded from the analysis of proverbs, the everyday wisdom that lies in them mostly coincides with behaviouristic conceptions of education as interaction and development management. According to educational scientist Heino Liimets, the interaction becomes truly mutual, but only at the highest level of acceptance of the educator’s influence – internal acceptance or interiorization. At lower levels, i.e., only agreeing to or external identification of influence, this is an influence from the educator’s position of power where the educable is passive, subordinate, and obeys commands. This content is characterized by behaviouristic thinking in educational science and can also be observed in proverbs. Behaviouristic beliefs also address the need of the proverbs to take into account the peculiarity of a child in their upbringing, which mainly mean the timeliness of education, i.e., a person can be forced into something only in childhood and youth. Upbringing, education, and learning/teaching are considered practically as synonyms in proverbs and behaviouristic educational science, both being regarded as the management of development from outside a human being. The use of certain educational methods, upbringing, and teaching methods is considered an essential condition for the management of development, education, and teaching, especially in behaviouristic thinking in science. It is a central theme also in proverbs where punishment (incl. physical), ordering, forbidding, disapproving, and causing fear are at the forefront as methods, and praising and “sharing mercy” can be found only to a very limited extent. To speak about Estonian educational scientists, Peeter Põld dealt with the topic of punishment mainly in the first half of the 20th century and Maie Tuulik at the beginning of the 21st century; the latter, however, has completely relied on the ideas of Põld. J. Käis emphasises that the culture, language, and customs of one’s nation are obtained by means of education. Education creates identity and helps socialize. Thus, education occurs as a valuation. The fact that education mediates and reproduces the values and norms valid in society is also clearly evident in Estonian proverbs. In the opinion of Maie Tuulik, modern diversity and ambivalence of values do not allow one clear hierarchy of values to be offered to a child to grow up. According to Põld, the bearer of values should primarily be someone authoritative as an example of education, although Põld himself also sees shortcomings of education based on authority. It levels individuality, promotes passivity and creates conventional values; it does not develop a sense of criticism. The relationships built on authority determine the higher and lower status of someone and, accordingly, the users of and subordinates to the power. Such relationships between parents and children as well as in education appear also in proverbs, which is expected because the world of proverbs expresses the structure of a peasant family characteristic of feudal Estonia. Due to their age, children had a low social status in the family at that time. Social status also depended on the gender. In peasant society, man was the head and provider for the family. Sons had an advantage over daughters: they were given more education and they stayed at the farm. Põld has also associated authority primarily with the father. Thus, education had to reproduce the stereotypically traditional division of roles in a family, which was characteristic of the patriarchal society. The worldview was value-based and normative and divided according to the principle of black and white, containing firm truths about who is a good and who is a bad child. A child who agreed to the upbringing of his/her parents and who respected the parents was considered good. According to Tuulik, such firm beliefs that value the hierarchical nature of relationships should be based on also today. Thus, everyday wisdom and corresponding everyday conscious world found in proverbs is present and reflected in Estonian educational science, especially in the ideas and works of two authors. These are Peeter Põld and Maie Tuulik, who represent a normative Christian-conservative view of upbringing and education, which in science is primarily related to the behaviouristic way of thinking, in which the educable is regarded as a passive object in a relationship of education based on power and authority. Thematically, of course, proverbs are also associated with the thoughts and works of other Estonian educational scientists – in particular, J. Käis, H. Liimets, A. Liimets, J. Orn, and I. Kraav, but in substantive emphasis these scientists represent a cognitive-constructivist, humanistic and hermeneutic-phenomenological way of thinking.


Mäetagused ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 80 ◽  
pp. 71-88
Author(s):  
Merili Metsvahi ◽  

The article gives a short overview of the Estonian werewolf tradition in the 16th and 17th centuries and a glimpse into the 19th–20th-century werewolf beliefs. The image of werewolf of the earlier and later periods is compared. The differences between the images of these two periods are explained with the help of the approaches of Tim Ingold and Philipp Descola, which ground the changes in the worldview taking place together with the shift from the pre-modern society into modernity. The mental world of the 16th–17th-century Estonian and Livonian peasant did not encompass the category of nature, and the borders between the human being and the animal on the one side and organism and environment on the other side were not so rigid as they are in today’s people’s comprehension of the world. The ability to change into a wolf was seen as an added possibility of acquiring new experiences and benefits. As the popular ontology had changed by the second half of the 19th century – the human mind was raised into the ultimate position and the animal was comprehended as being inferior – the transformation of a man into an animal, if it was seriously taken at all, seemed to be strange and unnatural.


Urban Studies ◽  
2021 ◽  

Urban warfare refers to combat occurring in a built environment of some significant size. It is sometimes referred to as Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) or as Fighting in Built Up Areas (FIBUA). It is widely considered to be particularly challenging. Partly this is because of the inherent complexity of the built environment, which taxes the ability of commanders to apprehend the battlespace, to lead their own forces effectively, and to judge the location and intent of enemy forces accurately. Partly it is because of the presence of civilians and sensitive civilian infrastructure (i.e., places of worship, hospitals, museums, etc.) in the battlespace, which limits the choice of tactics and weapons available to commanders for fear of violating laws of armed conflict. Partly it is because cities are nodes in global networks of trade and communications, as a result of which the consequences of tactical decisions may propagate widely and quickly to significant strategic effect. Sun Tzu advised fighting in cities only if “absolutely necessary, as a last resort,” a rule to which statesmen and commanders have tried to adhere to this day. However, on account of long-term trends in demographics, urbanization, and connectedness the major armed forces of the world have been preoccupied with a postulated unavoidability of urban warfare. Military doctrines and strategies often now start from the assumption that the future of land operations will increasingly be centered on urban terrain. The literature on urban warfare is quite segmented by discipline, normative outlook, particular areas of concern, and some fundamental points of disagreement. Researchers in urban studies detect in the growing military focus on operating in cities a “new military urbanism” that is by nature neo-colonialist, xenophobic, and “anti-urban.” The job of activist scholarship, in this view, is to expose and confront this development. In war and strategic studies, by contrast, scholars are interested in solving the challenges of urban warfare, including through the use of theories derived from disciplines like urban studies, anthropology, geography, and informatics. There is a further division between analysts who see urban warfare as an essentially modern phenomenon whose meaningful history stretches not much further back than the Second World War, and those who see war and the city as interlinked with relevant lessons going back as far as the origins of both.


2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110356
Author(s):  
Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro ◽  
Hortensia Sanchez-Tocino ◽  
Cecilia Diez-Montero ◽  
Minal Belani-Raju ◽  
Raquel García-Sanz ◽  
...  

Purpose: To describe the characteristics and recurrence rates of primary periocular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Spain. Methods: This retrospective study investigates the characteristics of primary periocular SCC at two tertiary centers in Spain from 2000 to 2020. Data were collected on demographics, skin phenotype, location, clinical and histological diagnosis, the commitment of surgical margins, recurrence, and risk factors. Multivariate analysis and risk factors were used to investigate recurrence rates, considering p < 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Over the 20-year studied period, 107 patients with primary periocular SCC were assessed. The mean age of SCC was 76.8 ± 12.8 years, 55 (50.9%) were females, and 105 (98.1%) had Fitzpatrick skin phenotype type II or III. SCC lesions affected less than 1/3 of the eyelid (56/52.3% cases), mainly the lower lid (42/39.3% lesions). Sixty (56.1%) cases were SCC differentiated, 76 (71%) had clear margins. Clinical diagnosis of SCC corroborated with histological in 84 (78.5%) cases and orbital involvement occurred in 18 (16.8%) cases. Recurrence was observed in 13 (12.1%) cases, occurring more in large tumors and undifferentiated subtype (53.8%), with committed margins (69.2%) ( p = 0.001), being the commitment of margins a significant predictor for recurrence, although thickness was an independent predictor. Conclusion: Periocular SCC in Spain showed a similar pattern as in the world. The risk of recurrence is increased in undifferentiated and large periocular SCC, partially removed with committed margins.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hongmei Shi ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
Jintian Xu ◽  
Jifang Yu ◽  
Shanshan Yang ◽  
...  

After several decades of use, trimethoprim (TMP) remains one of the key access antimicrobial drugs listed by the World Health Organization. To circumvent the problem of trimethoprim resistance worldwide, a better understanding of drug-resistance mechanisms is required. In this study, we screened the single-gene knockout library of Escherichia coli, and identified mgrB and other several genes involved in trimethoprim resistance. Subsequent comparative transcriptional analysis between ΔmgrB and the wild-type strain showed that expression levels of phoP, phoQ, and folA were significantly upregulated in ΔmgrB. Further deleting phoP or phoQ could partially restore trimethoprim sensitivity to ΔmgrB, and co-overexpression of phoP/Q caused TMP resistance, suggesting the involvement of PhoP/Q in trimethoprim resistance. Correspondingly, MgrB and PhoP were shown to be able to modulated folA expression in vivo. After that, efforts were made to test if PhoP could directly modulate the expression of folA. Though phosphorylated PhoP could bind to the promotor region of folA in vitro, the former only provided a weak protection on the latter as shown by the DNA footprinting assay. In addition, deleting the deduced PhoP box in ΔmgrB could only slightly reverse the TMP resistance phenotype, suggesting that it is less likely for PhoP to directly modulate the transcription of folA. Taken together, our data suggested that, in E. coli, MgrB affects susceptibility to trimethoprim by modulating the expression of folA with the involvement of PhoP/Q. This work broadens our understanding of the regulation of folate metabolism and the mechanisms of TMP resistance in bacteria.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Yue ◽  
Ernst Worrell ◽  
Wina Crijns-Graus ◽  
Wen Liu ◽  
Shaohui Zhang

AbstractIndustry is the largest electricity consuming sector in the world. China consumes about 25% of global electricity demand, and 69% of this is used in industries. The high electricity demand in industry is responsible for 45% of CO2, 25% of SO2, 34% of NOx and 14% of PM emissions in China. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap on the potential for electricity savings in China’s industries, thereby providing important implications for the potential of reducing emissions in electricity-intensive industrial subsectors in general. Available studies are reviewed and compared to identify electricity-saving potentials. The findings show that China’s industrial energy system is shifting to higher electricity and relatively lower fossil fuel use due to accelerated end-use electrification. China’s industry can reduce electricity use by 7–24% in 2040, compared to baseline levels, and generate emission reductions of 192–1118 Mt-CO2, 385–2241 kt-SO2, 406–2362 kt-NOx and 92–534 kt-PM2.5. The iron & steel subsector has the largest contribution to the industrial electricity savings, followed by non-ferrous metals, chemicals, cement and pulp & paper. Policies that combine environmental targets, demand-side efficiency and supply-side retrofits in the power sector should be adopted. Given the different performance of policies in terms of energy savings and emission reduction, sector- and region-specific policies would be preferred.


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