human flow
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Robert Burgoyne

This chapter explores the unprecedented formal experiments of Richard Mosse and Ai Weiwei in their attempts to capture the signature global event of our time, the mass movements of refugees and immigrants across geopolitical boundaries. In Mosse’s Incoming, a thermal camera registers the heat emanating from human bodies from some 30 miles away, providing images of refugees in lifeboats, transport trucks, and refugee camps that are both other-worldly, almost mutant in their strangeness, and deeply moving—images that rivet the gaze. In Ai Weiwei’s Human Flow, drone cameras render the vast scale of human displacement around the world—a view from above is interspersed with the close witnessing of cell phone video, using the visual language of spontaneous documentation in counterpoint with a technology associated with military surveillance. In both films, Giorgio Agamben’s concept of “bare life” is articulated within an advanced optical and technological framework that brings new critical questions into view.

2021 ◽  
Takaaki Aoki ◽  
Shota Fujishima ◽  
Naoya Fujiwara

Abstract Human flow in cities indicates social activity and can reveal urban spatial structures based on human behaviours for relevant applications. Scalar potential is a mathematical concept, and if successfully introduced, it can provide an intuitive perspective of human flow. However, the definition of such a potential to the origin-destination flow matrix and determination of its plausibility remain unsolved. Here, we apply Hodge-Kodaira decomposition, in which a matrix is uniquely decomposed into a potential-driven (gradient) flow and a curl flow. We depict the potential landscapes in cities due to commuting flow and reveal how the landscapes have been changed or unchanged by years or transport methods. We then determine how well the commuting flow is described by the potential, by evaluating the percentage of the gradient component for metropolitan areas in the USA and show that the gradient component is almost 100% in several areas; in other areas, however, the curl component is dominant, indicating the importance of circular flow along triangles of places. The potential landscape provides an easy-to-use visualisation tool to show the attractive places of human flow and will aid in various applications in commerce, urban design, and epidemic spreading.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Muhammad Asif ◽  
Doha A. Kattan ◽  
Dragan Pamučar ◽  
Ghous Ali

The theory of q -rung orthopair fuzzy sets ( q -ROFSs) is emerging for the provision of more comprehensive and useful information in comparison to their counterparts like intuitionistic and Pythagorean fuzzy sets, especially when responding to the models of vague data with membership and non-membership grades of elements. In this study, a significant generalized model q -ROFS is used to introduce the concept of q -rung orthopair fuzzy vector spaces ( q -ROFVSs) and illustrated by an example. We further elaborate the q -rung orthopair fuzzy linearly independent vectors. The study also involves the results regarding q -rung orthopair fuzzy basis and dimensions of q -ROFVSs. The main focus of this study is to define the concepts of q -rung orthopair fuzzy matroids ( q -ROFMs) and apply them to explore the characteristics of their basis, dimensions, and rank function. Ultimately, to show the significance of our proposed work, we combine these ideas and offer an application. We provide an algorithm to solve the numerical problems related to human flow between particular regions to ensure the increased government response action against frequently used path (heavy path) for the countries involved via directed q -rung orthopair fuzzy graph ( q -ROFG). At last, a comparative study of the proposed work with the existing theory of Pythagorean fuzzy matroids is also presented.

2021 ◽  
Sara Hintze ◽  
Jason Richard Yee

The concept of flow, a state of complete absorption in an intrinsically rewarding activity, has played a pivotal role in advancing notions of human well-being beyond minimising suffering towards promoting flourishing and thriving. While flow has played a fundamental role in human positive psychology, it has not yet been explored in non-human animals, leaving an enormous void in our understanding of intrinsic motivation in animals. As ethology and related fields keep progressing in uncovering complex cognitive and affective capacities of non-human animals, we propose the time is ripe to translate the concept of flow to animals. We start by embedding flow in the topic of intrinsic motivation and describe its impact on positive human psychology and potentially positive animal welfare. We then disambiguate flow from related concepts discussed in the animal literature. Next, we derive experimental approaches in animals from the canonical characteristics of flow in humans and provide guidelines for both inducing and assessing flow by focusing on two characteristics that do not necessarily depend on self-report, namely resistance to distraction and time distortion. Not all aspects of the human flow experience are (yet) translatable, but those that are may improve quality of life in non-human animals.

Александра Борисовна Гайнетдинова ◽  
Татьяна Константиновна Демидова ◽  
Елена Олеговна Тулупова

At present, the issue of migration to the European Union is very acute, despite many attempts of the under question countries’ leaders to stabilize the situation. On the one hand, European Union authorities are unable to cope with a massive human flow, and on the other hand, local population’ discontent with Europe’s Islamization is mounting. It is obvious that the migrants who have arrived in European countries are reluctant to learn the native language, do not accept the culture, do not accept the rules of conduct in European society, and sometimes dictate their own conditions. It undoubtedly disturbs European society.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Yohei Shida ◽  
Hideki Takayasu ◽  
Shlomo Havlin ◽  
Misako Takayasu

AbstractTo prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments in various countries have severely restricted the movement of people. The large amount of detailed human location data obtained from mobile phone users is useful for understanding the change of flow patterns of people under the effect of pandemic. In this paper, we observe the synchronized human flow during the COVID-19 pandemic using Global Positioning System data of about 1 million people obtained from mobile phone users. We apply the drainage basin analysis method which we introduced earlier for characterization of macroscopic human flow patterns to observe the effect of the spreading pandemic. Before the pandemic the afternoon basin size distribution has been approximated by an exponential distribution, however, the distribution of Tokyo and Sapporo, which were most affected by the first wave of COVID-19, deviated significantly from the exponential distribution. On the other hand, during the morning rush hour, the scaling law holds universally, i.e., in all cities, even though the number of moving people in the basin has decreased significantly. The fact that these scaling laws, which are closely related to the three-dimensionality structure of the city and the fractal structure of the transportation network, have not changed indicates that the macroscopic human flow features are determined mainly by the means of transport and the basic structure of cities which are invariant of the pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 ◽  
pp. 104346
Mateusz Zimoch ◽  
Urszula Markowska-Kaczmar

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 ◽  
pp. 783-792
Kirill Kulagin ◽  
Aleksandr Leksashov ◽  
Marina Bolsunovskaya ◽  
Svetlana Shirokova

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 30-42
Alla Zvyaginceva ◽  
Svetlana Sazonova ◽  
V. Kul'neva

The assessment of safe evacuation of people in case of fires at social facilities in the service sector was carried out on the basis of numerical modeling methods. The time of safe evacuation of people from the object is regulated on the basis of a basic mathematical model for monitoring fire hazards for a specific social object. The dependences of temperature on the duration of the fire, partial density of O2, optical density of smoke, partial density of CO2 and CO, partial density of HCl on the duration of the fire were established with the implementation of the Fogard software package using a simplified analytical model of human flow. On the basis of the developed mathematical model of the development of a fire, design solutions are proposed that provide a secure dispatch of the population from the facility.

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