Structural Topology
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Tanbir Ahammad ◽  
Rasal H. Khan ◽  
Indra D. Sahu ◽  
Daniel L. Drew ◽  
Emily Faul ◽  

Michele Marino ◽  
Ferdinando Auricchio ◽  
Alessandro Reali ◽  
Elisabetta Rocca ◽  
Ulisse Stefanelli

AbstractWe propose a variational principle combining a phase-field functional for structural topology optimization with a mixed (three-field) Hu–Washizu functional, then including directly in the formulation equilibrium, constitutive, and compatibility equations. The resulting mixed variational functional is then specialized to derive a classical topology optimization formulation (where the amount of material to be distributed is an a priori assigned quantity acting as a global constraint for the problem) as well as a novel topology optimization formulation (where the amount of material to be distributed is minimized, hence with no pre-imposed constraint for the problem). Both formulations are numerically solved by implementing a mixed finite element scheme, with the second approach avoiding the introduction of a global constraint, hence respecting the convenient local nature of the finite element discretization. Furthermore, within the proposed approach it is possible to obtain guidelines for settings proper values of phase-field-related simulation parameters and, thanks to the combined phase-field and Hu–Washizu rationale, a monolithic algorithm solution scheme can be easily adopted. An insightful and extensive numerical investigation results in a detailed convergence study and a discussion on the obtained final designs. The numerical results clearly highlight differences between the two formulations as well as advantages related to the monolithic solution strategy; numerical investigations address both two-dimensional and three-dimensional applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 386 ◽  
pp. 114081
Ying Zhou ◽  
Jihong Zhu ◽  
Haifei Zhan ◽  
Weihong Zhang ◽  
Yuantong Gu

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Weiwei Wang ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Yanting Tang ◽  
Xiaoting Zhou ◽  
Yuezheng Lai ◽  

AbstractCytochromes bd are ubiquitous amongst prokaryotes including many human-pathogenic bacteria. Such complexes are targets for the development of antimicrobial drugs. However, an understanding of the relationship between the structure and functional mechanisms of these oxidases is incomplete. Here, we have determined the 2.8 Å structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis cytochrome bd by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. This bd oxidase consists of two subunits CydA and CydB, that adopt a pseudo two-fold symmetrical arrangement. The structural topology of its Q-loop domain, whose function is to bind the substrate, quinol, is significantly different compared to the C-terminal region reported for cytochromes bd from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (G. th) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). In addition, we have identified two potential oxygen access channels in the structure and shown that similar tunnels also exist in G. th and E. coli cytochromes bd. This study provides insights to develop a framework for the rational design of antituberculosis compounds that block the oxygen access channels of this oxidase.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Lorenzo Pinelli ◽  
Andrea Amedei ◽  
Enrico Meli ◽  
Federico Vanti ◽  
Benedetta Romani ◽  

Abstract The need for high performances is pushing the complexity of mechanical design at very high levels, especially for turbomachinery components. Structural topology optimization methods together with additive manufacturing techniques for high resistant alloys are considered very promising tools, but their potentialities have not been deeply investigated yet for critical rotating components like new-generation turbine blades. This research work proposes a methodology for the design, the optimization and the additive manufacturing of extremely stressed turbomachinery components like turbine blade-rows. The presented procedure pays particular attention to important aspects of the problems as fluid-structure interactions and fatigue of materials, going beyond the standard structural optimization approaches found in the literature. The numerical procedure shows robustness and efficiency, making the proposed methodology a good tool for rapid design and prototyping, and for reducing the design costs and the time-to-market typical of these mechanical elements. The procedure has been applied to a low-pressure turbine rotor to improve the aeromechanical behavior while keeping the aerodynamic performance. From the original geometry, mode-shapes, forcing functions and aerodynamic damping have been numerically evaluated and are used as input data for the following topological optimization. Finally, the optimized geometry has been verified in order to confirm the improved aeromechanical design. After the structural topology optimization, the final geometries provided by the procedure have been then properly rendered to make them suitable for additive manufacturing. Some prototypes of the new optimized turbine blade have been manufactured to be tested in terms of fatigue.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Benliang Zhu ◽  
Rixin Wang ◽  
Hongchuan Zhang ◽  
Hai Li ◽  
Junwen Liang ◽  

Abstract Standard moving morphable component (MMC)-based topology optimization methods use free components with explicitly geometrical parameters as design units to obtain the optimal structural topology by moving, deforming and covering such components. In this study, we intend to present a method for geometrically nonlinear explicit topology optimization using moving wide Bezier components with constrained ends. Not only can the method efficiently avoid the convergence issues associated with nonlinear structural response analysis, but it can also alleviate the component disconnection issues associated with the standard MMC-based topology optimization methods. The numerical investigations proposed in this work indicate that the proposed method allows us to obtain results in accordance with the current literature with a more stable optimization process. In addition, the proposed method can easily achieve minimum length scale control without adding constraints.

2021 ◽  
Enrico Masoero ◽  
Connor O'Shaughnessy ◽  
Peter D. Gosling ◽  
Bernardino M. Chiaia

Structural Topology Optimization typically features continuum-based descriptions of the investigated systems.In Part 1 we have proposed a Topology Optimization method for discrete systems and tested it on quasi-static 2D problems of energy minimization, assuming linear elastic material.However, discrete descriptions become particularly convenient in the failure and post-failure regimes, where discontinuous processes take place, such as fracture, fragmentation, and collapse. Here we take a first step towards failure problems, testing Discrete Element Topology Optimization for systems with nonlinear material responses. The incorporation of material nonlinearity does not require any change to the optimisation method, only using appropriately rich interaction potentials between the discrete elements. Three simple problems are analysed, to show how various combinations of material nonlinearity in tension and compression can impact the optimum geometries. We also quantify the strength loss when a structure is optimized assuming a certain material behavior, but then the material behaves differently in the actual structure. For the systems considered here, assuming weakest material during optimization produces the most robust structures against incorrect assumptions on material behavior. Such incorrect assumptions, instead, are shown to have minor impact on the serviceability of the optimized structures.

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