dynamic probabilistic risk assessment
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2021 ◽  
pp. 17-39
Tarannom Parhizkar ◽  
Ingrid B. Utne ◽  
Jan-Erik Vinnem

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Nathan E. Wiltbank ◽  
Camille J. Palmer

This review paper highlights approaches and tools available to the nuclear industry for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) using dynamic event trees. DPRA is an emerging methodology that has advantages as compared to traditional, static PRA predominantly owing to the addition of time dependent modeling. Traditional PRAs predefine events and outcomes into Event Trees (ET) and Fault Trees (FT), that are coupled with various combinations of Initiating Events (IE), Top Events (TE), branches, end states and sequences. A more complete depiction of the system and accident progression behavior can be quantified using DPRA to account for dynamic events such as those involving human actions. This paper discusses the strengths and needs of existing DPRA tools to align with the risk informed methodology currently used in the nuclear industry. DPRA is evolving during an exciting time in the nuclear industry with emerging advanced reactor designs also coming on the scene. Advanced nuclear (Gen IV) designs often incorporate passively safe systems that have less readily available data for traditional PRA due to their limited operating history. DPRA is a promising methodology that can address this challenge and demonstrate to the regulatory bodies and public that advanced designs operate within safety margins. In this light, the paper considers the historical role of PRA in the nuclear industry and motivation for considering dynamic PRA models. An introduction to the differences inherent in DPRA and how it complements and enhances existing PRA approaches is discussed. Additionally, a review of research from U.S national laboratories and universities features recent DPRA tool advancements that could be applied in the nuclear industry. These DPRA approaches and tools are summarized and examined to thoughtfully provide a path forward to best leverage existing research and integrate DPRA into advanced reactor design and analysis.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. 2490
Asad Ullah Amin Shah ◽  
Robby Christian ◽  
Junyung Kim ◽  
Jaewhan Kim ◽  
Jinkyun Park ◽  

After the Fukushima Daiichi Accident, the safety features such as accident tolerant fuel (ATF) and diverse and flexible coping strategies (FLEX) for existing nuclear fleets are being investigated by the US Department of Energy under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. This research is being conducted to quantify the risk-benefit of these safety features. Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA)-based response-surface approach has been presented to quantify the FLEX and ATF benefits by estimating the risk associated with each option. ATFs with multilayered silicon carbide (SiC), iron-chromium-aluminum, and chromium-coated zirconium cladding were considered in this study. While these ATF candidates perform better than the current zirconium cladding (Zr), they may introduce additional failure modes in some operating conditions. The fuel failure analysis modules (FAMs) were developed to investigate ATF performance. The dynamic risk assessments were performed using RAVEN, a DPRA tool, coupled with RELAP5 and FAMs. A cumulative distribution function-based index provided a mean of comparing the benefits of safety enhancements. For medium break loss of coolant accidents, FLEX operational timing window for each fuel type was estimated. Among these ATF candidates, SiC-type ATF was the most beneficial candidate for an increased safety margin than Zr-based fuel and was found to complement FLEX strategies in terms of risk and coping time.

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