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Oryx ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Pamela McElwee ◽  
Huệ Thị Văn Lê ◽  
Tuyến Phương Nghiêm ◽  
Hương Diệu Vũ ◽  
Nghị Hữư Trần

Abstract There has been a rapid expansion in the use of payments for environmental services (PES) as a key conservation finance policy. However, there is insufficient understanding of how gender can affect PES implementation and outcomes. We present results from a case study in Viet Nam, where a national PES programme has been in place for a decade. Through panel household survey data, focus groups and interviews, we examined how women have been involved in PES policies, what the impacts have been on decision-making by men and women, participation rates and use of PES income over time, and the potential conservation outcomes. Our research confirms that resource use varies between men and women, and changes in access rights can fall disproportionately on women. Participation in PES has been lower for female-headed households and for women within male-headed households, although gradually more equitable participation has evolved within households. Female-headed households reported expending more yearly effort on PES activities despite protecting less land, and also increased their conservation activities over time as they presumably became more familiar with PES. Use of income from PES also showed differences between male and female-led households, with men more likely to spend funds on non-essential goods. Within households, although men initially decided how to spend PES money, decision-making has become more equitable over time. We conclude with some recommendations on how to increase attention to gender in PES projects and future research to improve outcomes.


Neuroforum ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Katrin Haase ◽  
Isabelle Musielak ◽  
Dominik Heyers

Abstract In addition to other natural orientation cues such as the stars, the sun, landmarks and olfactory cues, migrating birds possess the ability to orient by the Earth’s magnetic field. In recent years, neuroscientific research has pinpointed brain regions and connecting neuronal pathways that seem to be involved in processing magnetic information. To date, the most compelling neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence comes from the visual and trigeminal sensory systems. We expect that navigational information from both systems could be integrated in higher-order brain structures, such as the hippocampus and the “decision-making” caudolateral nidopallium. This review summarizes the current state of research on the neurosensory basis of magnetoreception in birds.


Author(s):  
B. Vittal ◽  
Raju Nellutla ◽  
M. Krishna Reddy

In banking system the evaluation of productivity and performance is the key factor among the fundamental concepts in management. For identify the potential performance of a bank efficiency is the parameter to evaluate effective banking system. To measure the efficiency of a bank selection of appropriate input-output variables is one of the most vital issues. The suitable identification of input-output variables helps to create and identify model in order to evaluate the efficiency and analysis. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a mathematical approach used to measure the efficiency of identified Decision Making Units (DMUs). The DEA is a methodology for evaluating the relative efficiency of peer decision making units of identified input/output variables for the financial year 2018-19. In this study the basic DEA CCR, BCC models used for measure the efficiency of DMUs. In addition to these models for minimize the input excess and output shortfall Slack Based Measure (SBM) efficiency used. The SBM is a scalar measure which directly deals with slacks of input, output variables which help in obtain improved efficiency score compare with previous model. The result from the analysis is


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 71-91
Author(s):  
Sidhamed Elandaloussi ◽  
Pascale Zarate ◽  
Noria Taghezout

Information technology (IT) infrastructure refers to the combined set of network, software, hardware, applications, and all the information technology-related equipment for an enterprise IT environment. In addition, it provides the entire skeleton for an organization to continue delivering several services to its internal members (employees) and external ones (customers/partners). The interruption of services leads to a significant deterioration of the infrastructure, and at the same time, it slows down their functioning. Additionally, it can result in important loss of user trust. Therefore, we need to proactively help the technician teams to assess the quality and availability of their IT infrastructure. This study may help to build an approach for an IT infrastructure called MAITD-2 in order to classify, analyze, and take problems to closure in a short time face to a multi-criteria decision-making problem.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marc Aurel Schnabel ◽  
Shuva Chowdhury

No description supplied


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marc Aurel Schnabel ◽  
Shuva Chowdhury

No description supplied


Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (13) ◽  
pp. 1489
Author(s):  
Shahzad Faizi ◽  
Wojciech Sałabun ◽  
Nisbha Shaheen ◽  
Atiq ur Rehman ◽  
Jarosław Wątróbski

Ambiguous and uncertain facts can be handled using a hesitant 2-tuple linguistic set (H2TLS), an important expansion of the 2-tuple linguistic set. The vagueness and uncertainty of data can be grabbed by using aggregation operators. Therefore, aggregation operators play an important role in computational processes to merge the information provided by decision makers (DMs). Furthermore, the aggregation operator is a potential mechanism for merging multisource data which is synonymous with cooperative preference. The aggregation operators need to be studied and analyzed from various perspectives to represent complex choice situations more readily and capture the diverse experiences of DMs. In this manuscript, we propose some valuable operational laws for H2TLS. These new operational laws work through the individual aggregation of linguistic words and the collection of translation parameters. We introduced a hesitant 2-tuple linguistic weighted average (H2TLWA) operator to solve multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems. We also define hesitant 2-tuple linguistic Bonferroni mean (H2TLBM) operator, hesitant 2-tuple linguistic geometric Bonferroni mean (H2TLGBM) operator, hesitant 2-tuple linguistic Heronian mean (H2TLHM) operator, and a hesitant 2-tuple linguistic geometric Heronian mean (H2TLGHM) operator based on the novel operational laws proposed in this paper. We define the aggregation operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, scalar multiplication, power and complement with their respective properties. An application example and comparison analysis were examined to show the usefulness and practicality of the work.


Author(s):  
Luisa Andrea González-Cruz ◽  
Luis Fernando Morales-Mendoza ◽  
Alberto Alfonso Aguilar-Lasserre ◽  
Catherine Azzaro-Pantel ◽  
Paulina Martínez-Isidro ◽  
...  

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (7) ◽  
pp. 2176
Author(s):  
Leontien Depoorter ◽  
Yvan Vandenplas

The potential benefit of the administration of probiotics in children has been studied in many settings globally. Probiotics products contain viable micro-organisms that confer a health benefit on the host. Beneficial effects of selected probiotic strains for the management or prevention of selected pediatric conditions have been demonstrated. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of current available evidence on the efficacy of specific probiotics in selected conditions to guide pediatricians in decision-making on the therapeutic or prophylactic use of probiotic strains in children. Evidence to support the use of certain probiotics in selected pediatric conditions is often available. In addition, the administration of probiotics is associated with a low risk of adverse events and is generally well tolerated. The best documented efficacy of certain probiotics is for treatment of infectious gastroenteritis, and prevention of antibiotic-associated, Clostridioides difficile-associated and nosocomial diarrhea. Unfortunately, due to study heterogeneity and in some cases high risk of bias in published studies, a broad consensus is lacking for specific probiotic strains, doses and treatment regimens for some pediatric indications. The current available evidence thus limits the systematic administration of probiotics. The most recent meta-analyses and reviews highlight the need for more well-designed, properly powered, strain-specific and dedicated-dose response studies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Natasha Michael ◽  
Clare O’Callaghan ◽  
Ekavi Georgousopoulou ◽  
Adelaide Melia ◽  
Merlina Sulistio ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Views on advance care planning (ACP) has shifted from a focus solely on treatment decisions at the end-of-life and medically orientated advanced directives to encouraging conversations on personal values and life goals, patient-caregiver communication and decision making, and family preparation. This study will evaluate the potential utility of a video decision support tool (VDST) that models values-based ACP discussions between cancer patients and their nominated caregivers to enable patients and families to achieve shared-decisions when completing ACP’s. Methods This open-label, parallel-arm, phase II randomised control trial will recruit cancer patient-caregiver dyads across a large health network. Previously used written vignettes will be converted to video vignettes using the recommended methodology. Participants will be ≥18 years and be able to complete questionnaires. Dyads will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to a usual care (UC) or VDST group. The VDST group will watch a video of several patient-caregiver dyads communicating personal values across different cancer trajectory stages and will receive verbal and written ACP information. The UC group will receive verbal and written ACP information. Patient and caregiver data will be collected individually via an anonymous questionnaire developed for the study, pre and post the UC and VDST intervention. Our primary outcome will be ACP completion rates. Secondarily, we will compare patient-caregiver (i) attitudes towards ACP, (ii) congruence in communication, and (iii) preparation for decision-making. Conclusion We need to continue to explore innovative ways to engage cancer patients in ACP. This study will be the first VDST study to attempt to integrate values-based conversations into an ACP intervention. This pilot study’s findings will assist with further refinement of the VDST and planning for a future multisite study. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12620001035910. Registered 12 October 2020. Retrospectively registered.


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