Vehicle exhaust emissions have seriously affected air quality and human health, and understanding the emission characteristics of vehicle pollutants can promote emission reductions. In this study, a chassis dynamometer was used to study the emission characteristics of the pollutants of two gasoline vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) when using six kinds of fuels. The results show that the two tested vehicles had different engine performance under the same test conditions, which led to a significant difference in their emission characteristics. The fuel consumption and pollutant emission factors of the WLTC cycle were higher than those of the NEDC. The research octane number (RON) and ethanol content of fuels have significant effects on pollutant emissions. For the Euro 5 vehicle, CO and particle number (PN) emissions decreased under the WLTC cycle, and NOx emissions decreased with increasing RONs. For the Euro 6 vehicle, CO and NOx emissions decreased and PN emissions increased with increasing RONs. Compared with traditional gasoline, ethanol gasoline (E10) led to decreases in NOx and PN emissions, and increased CO emissions for the Euro 5 vehicle, while it led to higher PN and NOx emissions and lower CO emissions for the Euro 6 vehicle. In addition, the particulate matter emitted was mainly nucleation-mode particulate matter, accounting for more than 70%. There were two peaks in the particle size distribution, which were about 18 nm and 40 nm, respectively. Finally, compared with ethanol–gasoline, gasoline vehicles with high emission standards (Euro 6) are more suitable for the use of traditional gasoline with a high RON.
This research examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and electricity prices in six South American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru). The methodology used is a panel econometric model with annual data for the period 1990–2015. The results show that the consumption of renewable energies influences the price of electricity paid by households, although its influence is very moderate. On the other hand, it was observed that the consumption of renewable energies has no relationship with the energy prices of the industrial sector and the commercial and services sector. In the countries analyzed, an increase in GDP causes an increase in the price of energy in the industrial sector. With more CO2 emissions and a rise in the international price of oil, the annual average price of the industrial sector decreases.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether small plates covering the roof and the hood of the DrivAer estate vehicle can be used as airbrakes and increase its drag as well as the downforce. The presented results were obtained with the use of the commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYS® Fluent. The main findings of the article are that the aerodynamic devices such as flaps covering surfaces of the vehicle can have a significant impact on drag increase and can be used not only to make the design of the car more striking but also beneficial when utilized as a part of an active aerodynamic setup.
Block M of the Ordos Basin is a typical low-permeability tight sandstone gas accumulation. To develop these reservoirs, various horizontal well fracturing technologies, such as hydra-jet fracturing, open-hole packer multistage fracturing, and perf-and-plug multistage fracturing, have been implemented in practice, showing greatly varying performance. In this paper, six fracturing technologies adopted in Block M are reviewed in terms of principle, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages, and their field application effects are compared from the technical and economic perspectives. Furthermore, the main factors affecting the productivity of fractured horizontal wells are determined using the entropy method, the causes for the difference in application effects of the fracturing technologies are analyzed, and a comprehensive productivity impact index (CPII) in good correlation with the single-well production of fractured horizontal wells is constructed. This article provides a simple and applicable method for predicting the performance of multi-frac horizontal wells that takes multiple factors into account. The results can be used to select completion methods and optimize fracturing parameters in similar reservoirs.
Considering that more than half of the world’s population today lives in cities and consumes about 80% of the world’s energy and that there is a problem with drinking water supply, this paper presents a way to solve the problem of the sustainability of cities by enabling their complete independence from external sources of energy and drinking water. The proposed solution entails the use of Seawater Steam Engine (SSE) technology to supply cities with electricity, thermal energy and drinking water. The system would involve the seasonal storage of electricity and thermal energy, supported by geothermal heat pumps. The strategy of the distribution network would be based on the original concept of the “loop”. In cities that do not have enough space, SSE collectors would be placed above the lower parts of the city like “canopies”. The city of Zagreb (Croatia) was selected as a case study due to its size, climate and vulnerability to natural disasters. The results show that Zagreb could become sustainable in 30 years with the allocation of less than 2% of GDP and could become a paradigm of sustainability for cities worldwide. This paper encourages the development of the “Philosophy of Sustainability” because the stated goals cannot be achieved without a change in consciousness.
Voltage regulation in distribution networks encounters a challenge of handling uncertainties caused by the high penetration of photovoltaics (PV). This research proposes an active exploration (AE) method based on reinforcement learning (RL) to respond to the uncertainties by regulating the voltage of a distribution network with battery energy storage systems (BESS). The proposed method integrates engineering knowledge to accelerate the training process of RL. The engineering knowledge is the chance-constrained optimization. We formulate the problem in a chance-constrained optimization with a linear load flow approximation. The optimization results are used to guide the action selection of the exploration for improving training efficiency and reducing the conserveness characteristic. The comparison of methods focuses on how BESSs are used, training efficiency, and robustness under varying uncertainties and BESS sizes. We implement the proposed algorithm, a chance-constrained optimization, and a traditional Q-learning in the IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder. Our evaluation shows that the proposed AE method has a better response to the training efficiency compared to traditional Q-learning. Meanwhile, the proposed method has advantages in BESS usage in conserveness compared to the chance-constrained optimization.
This paper investigates the electromagnetic torque by considering back electromagnetic force (back-EMF) trapezoidal degrees of ironless brushless DC (BLDC) motors through the two-dimensional finite element method (2-D FEM). First, the change percentages of the electromagnetic torque with back-EMF trapezoidal degrees, relative to those of PMs without segments, are investigated on the premise of the same back-EMF amplitude. It is found that both PM symmetrically and asymmetrically segmented types influence back-EMF trapezoidal degrees. Second, the corresponding electromagnetic torque, relative to that of PMs without segments, is studied in detail. The results show that the electromagnetic torque can be improved or deteriorated depending on whether the back-EMF trapezoidal degree is lower or higher than that of PMs without segments. Additionally, the electromagnetic torque can easily be improved by increasing the number of PMs’ symmetrical segments. In addition, the electromagnetic torque in PMs with asymmetrical segments is always higher than that of PMs without segments. Finally, two ironless PM BLDC motors with PMs symmetrically segmented into three segments and without segments are manufactured and tested. The experimental results show good agreement with those of the 2-D FEM method. This approach provides significant guidelines to electromagnetic torque improvement without much increase in manufacturing costs and process complexity.
Europe stated the ambitious target of becoming carbon neutral by 2050 to combat climate change and meet the requirements imposed by the Paris Agreement, and renewable energy has proved to be a promising solution for the decarbonization of many sectors. Nonetheless, their aleatory nature leads to grid unbalances due to the difference between supply and demand. Storage solutions are needed, and electrofuels become a key factor in this context: they are fuels produced from electricity, which leads to carbon-neutral fuels if it originates from renewable sources. These can constitute a key solution to store the surplus energy and to decarbonize the so-called hard-to-abate sectors. Electrofuel production technologies have not yet been fully developed, and, in this context, extensive study of the state-of-the-art of existing projects can be very useful for researchers and developers. This work researches the European projects funded by the Horizon 2020 Programme regarding electrofuel production. The projects were analyzed in-depth using specific features, and the results were presented.