The quasiperiodic structures in metal alloys have been known to depend on the existence of icosahedral order in the melt. Among different phases observed in intermetallics, decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) structures have been identified in many glass-forming alloys yet remain inaccessible in bulk-state condensed soft matters. Via annealing the mixture of two giant molecules, the binary system assemblies into an axial DQC superlattice, which is identified comprehensively with meso-atomic accuracy. Analysis indicates that the DQC superlattice is composed of mesoatoms with an unusually broad volume distribution. The interplays of submesoatomic (molecular) and mesoatomic (supramolecular) local packings are found to play a crucial role in not only the formation of the metastable DQC superlattice but also its transition to dodecagonal quasicrystal and Frank–Kasper σ superlattices.