scholarly journals Semantic theories, linguistic essences, and knowledge of meaning

Synthese ◽  
2021 ◽  
Nick Haverkamp ◽  
Miguel Hoeltje

AbstractThis paper argues, first, that the information problem poses a foundational challenge to mainstream semantics. It proposes, second, to address this problem by drawing on notions from Kit Fine’s essentialist framework. More specifically, it claims that the information problem can be avoided by strengthening standard truth theories, employing an operator expressing the notion of a relative constitutive semantic requirement. As a result, the paper proposes to construe semantic theories as theories of semantic requirements, and semantic knowledge as knowledge of such requirements.

2019 ◽  
Vol 62 (12) ◽  
pp. 4464-4482 ◽  
Diane L. Kendall ◽  
Megan Oelke Moldestad ◽  
Wesley Allen ◽  
Janaki Torrence ◽  
Stephen E. Nadeau

Purpose The ultimate goal of anomia treatment should be to achieve gains in exemplars trained in the therapy session, as well as generalization to untrained exemplars and contexts. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of phonomotor treatment, a treatment focusing on enhancement of phonological sequence knowledge, against semantic feature analysis (SFA), a lexical-semantic therapy that focuses on enhancement of semantic knowledge and is well known and commonly used to treat anomia in aphasia. Method In a between-groups randomized controlled trial, 58 persons with aphasia characterized by anomia and phonological dysfunction were randomized to receive 56–60 hr of intensively delivered treatment over 6 weeks with testing pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3 months posttreatment termination. Results There was no significant between-groups difference on the primary outcome measure (untrained nouns phonologically and semantically unrelated to each treatment) at 3 months posttreatment. Significant within-group immediately posttreatment acquisition effects for confrontation naming and response latency were observed for both groups. Treatment-specific generalization effects for confrontation naming were observed for both groups immediately and 3 months posttreatment; a significant decrease in response latency was observed at both time points for the SFA group only. Finally, significant within-group differences on the Comprehensive Aphasia Test–Disability Questionnaire ( Swinburn, Porter, & Howard, 2004 ) were observed both immediately and 3 months posttreatment for the SFA group, and significant within-group differences on the Functional Outcome Questionnaire ( Glueckauf et al., 2003 ) were found for both treatment groups 3 months posttreatment. Discussion Our results are consistent with those of prior studies that have shown that SFA treatment and phonomotor treatment generalize to untrained words that share features (semantic or phonological sequence, respectively) with the training set. However, they show that there is no significant generalization to untrained words that do not share semantic features or phonological sequence features.

2008 ◽  
Simon De Deyne ◽  
Gert Storms

2015 ◽  
Dana Rubinstein ◽  
Effi Levi ◽  
Roy Schwartz ◽  
Ari Rappoport

2013 ◽  
Vol 44 (6) ◽  
pp. 720-734
Xu-Qian CHEN ◽  
Ben-Xuan HE ◽  

Procedia CIRP ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 97 ◽  
pp. 373-378
Sharath Chandra Akkaladevi ◽  
Matthias Plasch ◽  
Michael Hofmann ◽  
Andreas Pichler

Agata Manolova ◽  
Krasimir Tonchev ◽  
Vladimir Poulkov ◽  
Sudhir Dixir ◽  
Peter Lindgren

AbstractAugmented, mixed and virtual reality are changing the way people interact and communicate. Five dimensional communications and services, integrating information from all human senses are expected to emerge, together with holographic communications (HC), providing a truly immersive experience. HC presents a lot of challenges in terms of data gathering and transmission, demanding Artificial Intelligence empowered communication technologies such as 5G. The goal of the paper is to present a model of a context-aware holographic architecture for real time communication based on semantic knowledge extraction. This architecture will require analyzing, combining and developing methods and algorithms for: 3D human body model acquisition; semantic knowledge extraction with deep neural networks to predict human behaviour; analysis of biometric modalities; context-aware optimization of network resource allocation for the purpose of creating a multi-party, from-capturing-to-rendering HC framework. We illustrate its practical deployment in a scenario that can open new opportunities in user experience and business model innovation.

Johannes Tröger ◽  
Hali Lindsay ◽  
Mario Mina ◽  
Nicklas Linz ◽  
Stefan Klöppel ◽  

Abstract Objective: Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks require individuals to name items from a specified category within a fixed time. An impaired SVF performance is well documented in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). The two leading theoretical views suggest either loss of semantic knowledge or impaired executive control to be responsible. Method: We assessed SVF 3 times on 2 consecutive days in 29 healthy controls (HC) and 29 patients with aMCI with the aim to answer the question which of the two views holds true. Results: When doing the task for the first time, patients with aMCI produced fewer and more common words with a shorter mean response latency. When tested repeatedly, only healthy volunteers increased performance. Likewise, only the performance of HC indicated two distinct retrieval processes: a prompt retrieval of readily available items at the beginning of the task and an active search through semantic space towards the end. With repeated assessment, the pool of readily available items became larger in HC, but not patients with aMCI. Conclusion: The production of fewer and more common words in aMCI points to a smaller search set and supports the loss of semantic knowledge view. The failure to improve performance as well as the lack of distinct retrieval processes point to an additional impairment in executive control. Our data did not clearly favour one theoretical view over the other, but rather indicates that the impairment of patients with aMCI in SVF is due to a combination of both.

2021 ◽  
Vol 117 ◽  
pp. 104208
Benjamin Kowialiewski ◽  
Benoît Lemaire ◽  
Sophie Portrat

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