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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Lei Luo ◽  
Tyreal Yizhou Qian ◽  
Gregg Rich ◽  
James J. Zhang

PurposeThe current study was designed to (1) identify core and peripheral market demand for a recurring hallmark sporting event, testing their impact on event identification and behavioral intentions; and to (2) explore the effect of core and peripheral market demand on event identification between first-time and repeat spectators.Design/methodology/approachResearch participants (N = 540) were spectators at the Shanghai Masters over a span of seven days. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and partial least squares multi-group analysis (PLS-MGA).FindingsSignificant, positive relationships were found between core market demand and event identification, and between core market demand and behavioral intentions. In contrast, peripheral market demand only had significant, positive effect on event identification; however, findings revealed that event identification fully mediated the relationships between peripheral market demand and behavioral intentions. Additionally, the effect of peripheral market demand on event identification was greater among first-time spectators than repeat spectators.Originality/valueThis study contributed to the application of PLS-SEM in sport management research by adopting a formative-formative hierarchical component model (HCM) to address the prevailing measurement model misspecification of market demand constructs. The findings highlighted the merits of promoting market demand associated with recurring hallmark sporting events and the importance of enhancing event identification through differential market penetration schemes across different spectator groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (1) ◽  
pp. e109
Teodor T. Denchev ◽  
María P. Martín ◽  
Martin Kemler ◽  
Cvetomir M. Denchev

After examination of specimens, mainly from the herbarium (MA) and the mycological collection (MA-Fungi) of the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid, we report several novelties on smut fungi within Europe. Two species of smut fungi, Sporisorium egyptiacum and Tilletia viennotii, are reported for the first time from Europe. A finding of Sphacelotheca polygoni-serrulati represents a second record for Europe. Six species of smut fungi, Moreaua kochiana, Schizonella elynae, Sporisorium egyptiacum, Thecaphora thlaspeos, Tilletia viennotii, and Ustanciosporium majus, are recorded for the first time from the Iberian Peninsula. Five species of smut fungi, Moreaua kochiana, Schizonella elynae, Sporisorium egyptiacum, Thecaphora thlaspeos, and Ustanciosporium majus, are newly recorded from Spain. Three species, Moreaua kochiana, Sphacelotheca polygoni-serrulati, and Tilletia viennotii, are new for Portugal. A specimen of Moreaua kochiana represents a new record for France. Arabis serpillifolia is reported as a new host of Thecaphora thlaspeos. New distribution records from the Iberian Peninsula are given for Anthracoidea arenariae, Microbotryum minuartiae, M. silenes-saxifragae, and Tranzscheliella sparti. We also include a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of Moreaua kochiana, generated in this study, to understand this species’ relationships within its genus.

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4990 (2) ◽  

The biodiversity of northern South American and Central American Liogenys Guérin-Méneville, 1831 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Diplotaxini) is reviewed. Four new species are described: L. clipeosetosa Cherman, new species; L. genieri Smith & Cherman, new species; L. granadina Cherman, new species; and L. schneiderae Cherman, new species. The male of L. quadridens (Fabricius, 1798) and the female of L. quadridentata Blanchard, 1851 are described for the first time. Liogenys gebieni Moser, 1921 is a new junior subjective synonym of L. macropelma Bates, 1887. The northernmost record of Liogenys is emended to Trinidad and Tobago for L. granadina Cherman, new species and L. schneiderae new species. Diplotaxis puberea cuprascens (Bates, 1887) new combination, Diplotaxis puberea puberea (Bates, 1887) new combination, and Diplotaxis pubisternis (Bates, 1887) new combination are all transferred from Liogenys to Diplotaxis Kirby, 1837. Lectotypes are designated for Liogenys gebieni Moser, 1921; Melolontha quadridens Fabricius, 1798; and Liogenys quadridentatus Blanchard, 1851. An identification key to northern South American Liogenys is presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Julien Benoit ◽  
Claire Browning ◽  
Luke A. Norton

Despite their significance for paleobiological interpretations, bite marks have been rarely reported in non-mammalian therapsids (NMT). Here we describe, for the first time, the occurrence of a tooth embedded in the snout of a gorgonopsian. The tooth is surrounded by a bony callus, which demonstrates that the animal was still alive after the attack and healed. The identity of the attacker is unknown. Two hypotheses are discussed to account for this healed bite: failed predation (most likely by a biarmosuchian, therocephalian, or another gorgonopsian) and intraspecific social biting. Though predation cannot be ruled out, it has been hypothesized that gorgonopsians used their saber-like teeth for social signaling, which suggests that social biting may be the most likely scenario. The practice of social biting has long been hypothesized in NMT, but this is the first fossilized evidence of the behavior to be described.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Santi Tasena

PurposeTo discuss subcopula estimation for discrete models.Design/methodology/approachThe convergence of estimators is considered under the weak convergence of distribution functions and its equivalent properties known in prior works.FindingsThe domain of the true subcopula associated with discrete random variables is found to be discrete on the interior of the unit hypercube. The construction of an estimator in which their domains have the same form as that of the true subcopula is provided, in case, the marginal distributions are binomial.Originality/valueTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such an estimator is defined and proved to be converged to the true subcopula.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Zamvar Vipin

In June 2021, an Employment Tribunal accepted the claim from the complainant that the UK regulator, the General Medical Council may have discriminated against a doctor based on his race, ethnicity or religion in their processes and outcomes. [1] This is perhaps the first time that such a claim of discrimination based on race, ethnicity or religion has been passed in the UK, hence this is hailed as a ‘landmark judgement’. It is not the first time that doctors have claimed that GMC and its processes demonstrate institutional racism. [2] The Kline report described the existence of ‘In groups and out groups’ determined by qualifications (including by country and within the UK by medical school) and ethnicity (including within BME populations). They found that members of ingroups can receive favourable treatment and those in out-groups are at risk of bias and stereotyping.[3] Amitabha Banerjee, wrote in the BMJ, that overt and covert racism within the medical profession is rarely talked about but existed then, and still, unfortunately, exists now, albeit to a lesser extent, to this day.[4] The case of Hadiza Bawa-Garba, a Paediatric trainee who was struck off the register by the GMC on negligence and then subsequently restored demonstrated discrimination in the processes, as the duty White consultant did not face any disciplinary process. Complaints are more likely to be against BAME doctors, and when they proceed to the regulator or the law courts, they are more likely to lead to more serious punitive measures and guilty verdicts. [5–7] The debate on whether GMC’s processes were unfair, discriminatory and racist started in 1996.[8] However, even in 2003, the GMC council has debated the issues of institutional racism and expressed its commitment to fairness [9] but little progress has been made even 2 decades later. In its submission to William’s review in 2018, BAPIO had recommended that the review must advise the GMC and the NHS to acknowledge the existence and impact of racial discrimination and make concerted efforts to improve this image nationally and abroad. [10] About the differential outcomes for doctors from minority ethnic backgrounds in examinations, assessments, and recruitment, the GMC is committed to ensuring that medical education and training pathways are valid, fair and justified. [11]   The world including the NHS is changing. The Care Quality Commission (CQC) has issued an open statement, together with the NHS Race and Health Observatory, Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) and the GMC, calling on healthcare leaders to ensure that health and care staff across the country are protected from racism or any other form of discrimination. The statement demonstrates a collective commitment to work together to tackle racism, bias and inequalities within the healthcare system, calling on healthcare leaders to ensure that policies and processes are fair, inclusive and in line with the Equality Act 2010. The GMC sets “ambitious” targets to address specific areas within medical the profession to address entrenched bias and racial discrimination, which it believes requires “sustained focus and for healthcare regulators to be aligned on this commitment”.  Dame Clare Marx, the chairperson of the GMC UK, reiterated her commitment to creating robust processes which were fair, transparent and just in dealing with all doctors, offer speedy resolutions/ outcomes of cases, offer sensitivity and support to doctors under investigation. She committed the GMC to facilitate change across the system. [12] The NHS has been working to close this gap by adopting national targets in formal disciplinary investigations between White and BAME staff.[13] There is more visibility of the work of overseas doctors and issues of racism are being more openly debated. There has been progress, but if we want to attract the best doctors in the world to the NHS, we have to create an environment where those doctors will be treated fairly and without discrimination. In his Blog following a recent meeting with the GMC in Scotland on equality, diversity and inclusion, Professor Zamvar explores the feedback he has received from his colleagues and issues a wake-up call to the profession.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Abdelkader Derbali ◽  
Kamel Naoui ◽  
Lamia Jamel

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of COVID-19 pandemic news in USA and in China on the dynamic conditional correlation between Bitcoin and Gold. Design/methodology/approach This paper offers a crucial viewpoint to the predictive capacity of COVID-19 surprises and production pronouncements for the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) among Bitcoin and Gold returns and volatilities using generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity-DCC-(1,1) through the period of study since July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020. To assess the unexpected impact of COVID-19, this study pursues the Kuttner’s (2001) methodology. Findings The empirical findings indicate strong important correlation among Bitcoin and Gold if COVID-19 surprises are integrated in variance. This study validates the financialization hypothesis of Bitcoin and Gold. The correlation between Bitcoin and Gold begin to react significantly further in the case of COVID-19 surprises in USA than those in China. Originality/value This paper contributes to the literature on assessing the impact of COVID-19 confirmed cases surprises on the correlation between Bitcoin and Gold. This paper gives for the first time an approach to capture the COVID-19 surprise component. Also, this study helps to improve financial backers and policymakers' comprehension of the digital currencies' market elements, particularly in the hours of amazingly unpleasant and inconspicuous occasions.

2021 ◽  
Anna Bystrova

The Doctoral Thesis aims to identify the influence of hydroxyapatite (Hap) defects (such as OH-group, H-, O-vacancies, H-interstitials, and their combination) on the electrical potential of HAp’s surface which influences biocompatibility and control cell adhesion. HAp contains various structural imperfections (defects) and has a non-stoichiometric composition. The structural imperfections induce the heterogeneity of the surface electrical potential. However, the role of the defects OH-group, H-, O-vacancies, H-interstitials, and their combination in the formation of HAp surface polarization and their influence on HAp surface charge, energy band structure and electron work function has not yet been investigated. In this Thesis, for the first time the theoretical and experimental approaches were used to investigate the influence of structural imperfections (OH-, H-, O-vacancies, H-interstitials, and hydrogen atoms filling unsaturated hydrogen bonds) on HAp electrical properties. The computer simulations of HAp structures analyse the properties of these effects. Semiempirical methods of molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics, as well as methods of density functional theory were employed. The experimental studies of the HAp surface electrical properties were carried out by photoluminescence (PL) emission, synchrotron excitation spectroscopy, threshold photoelectron (PE) emission spectroscopy. The influence of annealing, hydrogenation, microwave, gamma irradiation and their combination on HAp defects was investigated experimentally for the first time. The obtained results are in accordance with computational data. The achieved results will help to improve technologies to engineer the surface charge of Hap.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (12) ◽  
pp. 3714
Emmanoel V. Costa ◽  
Liviane do N. Soares ◽  
Jamal da Silva Chaar ◽  
Valdenizia R. Silva ◽  
Luciano de S. Santos ◽  

Diclinanona calycina R. E. Fries popularly known as “envira”, is a species of the Annonaceae family endemic to Brazil. In our ongoing search for bioactive compounds from Annonaceae Amazon plants, the bark of D. calycina was investigated by classical chromatography techniques that yielded thirteen compounds (alkaloids and flavonoids) described for the first time in D. calycina as well as in the genus Diclinanona. The structure of these isolated compounds were established by extensive analysis using 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy in combination with MS. The isolated alkaloids were identified as belonging to the subclasses: simple isoquinoline, thalifoline (1); aporphine, anonaine (2); oxoaporphine, liriodenine (3); benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, (S)-(+)-reticuline (4); dehydro-oxonorreticuline (3,4-dihydro-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1-isoquinolinyl)(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-methanone) (5); (+)-1S,2R-reticuline Nβ-oxide (6); and (+)-1S,2S-reticuline Nα-oxide (7); tetrahydroprotoberberine, coreximine (8); and pavine, bisnorargemonine (9). While the flavonoids belong to the benzylated dihydroflavones, isochamanetin (10), dichamanetin (11), and a mixture of uvarinol (12) and isouvarinol (13). Compound 5 is described for the first time in the literature as a natural product. The cytotoxic activity of the main isolated compounds was evaluated against cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Among the tested compounds, the most promising results were found for the benzylated dihydroflavones dichamanetin (10), and the mixture of uvarinol (12) and isouvarinol (13), which presented moderate cytotoxic activity against the tested cancer cell lines (<20.0 µg·mL−1) and low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell line MRC-5 (>25.0 µg·mL−1). Dichamanetin (11) showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 and HCT116 with IC50 values of 15.78 µg·mL−1 (33.70 µmol·L−1) and 18.99 µg·mL−1 (40.56 µmol·L−1), respectively while the mixture of uvarinol (12) and isouvarinol (13) demonstrated cytotoxic activity against HL-60, with an IC50 value of 9.74 µg·mL−1, and HCT116, with an IC50 value of 17.31 µg·mL−1. These cytotoxic activities can be attributed to the presence of one or more hydroxybenzyl groups present in these molecules as well as the position in which these groups are linked. The cytotoxic activities of reticuline, anonaine and liriodenine have been previously established, with liriodenine being the most potent compound.

2021 ◽  
Vol 755 ◽  
Igor Ya. Grichanov

Eleven new species of Amblypsilopus Bigot, 1888 from Madagascar are described and illustrated: A. analamazaotra sp. nov., A. andasibensis sp. nov., A. ankarana sp. nov., A. bairae sp. nov., A. fianarantsoa sp. nov., A. freidbergi sp. nov., A. friedmani sp. nov., A. leonidi sp. nov., A. marinae sp. nov., A. olgae sp. nov., and A. romani sp. nov. New species differ from other representatives of the genus in morphology of male surstylus and cercus mainly and male secondary sexual characters on legs. A. flavus (Vanschuytbroeck, 1962) is redescribed. Presently, ca 60 species of Amblypsilopus are known from the Afrotropical region, and 25 species are found on Madagascar. Western Indian Ocean species are associated with the Indo-Pacific A. pallidicornis group, the Pantropical A. abruptus group and the Madagascan A. stuckenbergi group of species. An identification key to males of 28 species of Madagascar and adjacent islands is compiled for the first time.

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