Working Memory
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 100062
Raquel Muñoz-Pradas ◽  
Miriam Díaz-Palacios ◽  
Elena I. Rodriguez-Martínez ◽  
Carlos M. Gómez

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Ru-Yuan Zhang ◽  
Adrien Chopin ◽  
Kengo Shibata ◽  
Zhong-Lin Lu ◽  
Susanne M. Jaeggi ◽  

AbstractPrevious work has demonstrated that action video game training produces enhancements in a wide range of cognitive abilities. Here we evaluate a possible mechanism by which such breadth of enhancement could be attained: that action game training enhances learning rates in new tasks (i.e., “learning to learn”). In an initial controlled intervention study, we show that individuals who were trained on action video games subsequently exhibited faster learning in the two cognitive domains that we tested, perception and working memory, as compared to individuals who trained on non-action games. We further confirmed the causal effect of action video game play on learning ability in a pre-registered follow-up study that included a larger number of participants, blinding, and measurements of participant expectations. Together, this work highlights enhanced learning speed for novel tasks as a mechanism through which action video game interventions may broadly improve task performance in the cognitive domain.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258458
Sophie Gillet ◽  
Cristina Barbu ◽  
Martine Poncelet

The results of studies targeting cognitive and academic advantages in children frequenting early bilingual immersion school programs (CLIL) have been contradictory. While the impact of the amount of CLIL experience has already been studied, the role of the second language learned has been little studied to account for differences among study findings. The link between executive skills (EF) and scholar abilities (e.g., mathematics) in the CLIL context has also been little investigated. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the impact of CLIL on EF and academic performances varies depending on the immersion language and the duration of CLIL experience. The sample included a total of 230 French-speaking children attending second (141) and fifth (89) grade classes. Within each grade, there were three matched language groups composed of children respectively immersed in English, immersed in Dutch, and non-immersed controls. The children were administered tasks assessing executive functions [alerting, cognitive flexibility, and working memory], as well as arithmetic abilities. In second grade, we detected no difference in EF between the language groups. On the other hand, in fifth grade, the two immersed groups outperformed the non-immersed group on the cognitive flexibility task but did not differ between them. Moreover, only the Dutch immersed group outperformed the control group on the working memory task. Arithmetic performances also differed depending on the language learned; in second grade, Dutch learners performed better than the monolingual group. In fifth grade, Dutch learners outperformed the two other groups. These results suggest that the impact of CLIL on executive skills and arithmetic performances might be modulated by the amount of CLIL experience and the second language learned in immersion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Katrien Kestens ◽  
Sofie Degeest ◽  
Marijke Miatton ◽  
Hannah Keppler

Objective: To strengthen future methodological choices regarding the measurement of cognition within the field of audiology, the current study aimed to examine the effect of, among other things, hearing sensitivity on the backward corsi tapping task (i.e., visual working memory and processing speed) and the letter-number sequencing task (i.e., verbal working memory and processing speed).Design and Study Sample: The backward corsi tapping task and the letter-number sequencing task were administered to 184 participants, aged between 18 and 69 years. The effect of age, sex, educational level, awakeness, and hearing sensitivity on verbal and visual working memory and processing speed was assessed using stepwise multiple regression analyses.Results: For all outcome variables, a decrease in performance was observed with increasing age. For visual and verbal working memory, males outperformed females, whereas no clear sex effect was observed for visual and verbal processing speed. Hearing sensitivity had only a significant impact on visual processing speed.Conclusion: The importance to evaluate cognitive construct validity within audiological research was highlighted. Further research should focus on investigating the associations between speech understanding on the one hand and the backward corsi tapping task and letter-number sequencing task on the other hand.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rish P. Hinwar ◽  
Anthony J. Lambert

Auditory and visual imagery were studied in a sample of 128 participants, including 34 self-reported aphantasics. Auditory imagery (Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale-Vividness, BAIS-V) and visual imagery (Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire-Modified, VVIQ-M) were strongly associated, Spearman's rho = 0.83: Most self-reported aphantasics also reported weak or entirely absent auditory imagery; and participants lacking auditory imagery tended to be aphantasic. Similarly, vivid visual imagery tended to co-occur with vivid auditory imagery. Nevertheless, the aphantasic group included one individual with typical auditory imagery; and the group lacking auditory imagery (N = 29) included one individual with typical visual imagery. Hence, weak visual and auditory imagery can dissociate, albeit with low apparent incidence. Auditory representations and auditory imagery are thought to play a key role in a wide range of psychological domains, including working memory and memory rehearsal, prospective cognition, thinking, reading, planning, problem-solving, self-regulation, and music. Therefore, self-reports describing an absence of auditory imagery raise a host of important questions concerning the role of phenomenal auditory imagery in these domains. Because there is currently no English word denoting an absence of auditory imagery, we propose a new term, anauralia, for referring to this, and offer suggestions for further research.

2021 ◽  
Walter Setti ◽  
Luigi F. Cuturi ◽  
Isaac Engel ◽  
Lorenzo Picinali ◽  
Monica Gori

2021 ◽  
Cameron Sawyer ◽  
Jonathan Green ◽  
Benjamin Lim ◽  
Gorana Pobric ◽  
JeYoung Jung ◽  

Background: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural impairments, particularly with deficits in working memory. This study investigates the cerebral volumetric differences in adolescents with NF1 as compared to typically developing controls and how working memory task performance is associated with these differences. Methods: 31 adolescents aged 11-17 years were compared to age and sex-matched controls. NF1 subjects were assessed using detailed multimodal measurement of working memory at baseline followed by a 3T MR scan. A voxel-based morphometry approach was used to estimate the total and regional gray matter(GM) volumetric differences between the NF1 and control groups. The working memory metrics were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA) approach. Finally, we examined how the components derived from PCA correlated with the changes in GM volume in the NF1 group, after adjusting for age, sex and total intracranial volume. Results: The NF1 cohort showed increased GM volumes in the thalamus, globus pallidus, caudate, putamen, dorsal midbrain and cerebellum bilaterally as compared to controls. The PCA yielded three independent behavioural components reflecting high memory load, low memory load and auditory working memory. Correlation analyses revealed that increased volume of the inferior lateral parietal cortex was associated with poorer performance on the high working memory load tasks. Increased volume of posterior cingulate cortex, a key component of the default mode network (DMN) was significantly associated with poorer performance on low working memory load tasks. Discussion: This is the first study to examine the neuroanatomical correlates of working memory in NF1 adolescents. Consistent with prior literature we show larger subcortical brain volumes in in the NF1 cohort. The strong association between posterior cingulate cortex volume and performance on low memory load conditions supports previously suggested hypotheses of deficient DMN structural development, which in turn may contribute to the cognitive impairments in NF1.

2021 ◽  
Eunho Kim ◽  
Jin-Woo Yu ◽  
Bomin Kim ◽  
Sung-Ho Lim ◽  
Sang-Ho Lee ◽  

2021 ◽  
Hunter Ball ◽  
Elizabeth A. Wiemers ◽  
Gene Arnold Brewer

Successful prospective memory (PM) involves not only detecting that an environmental cue requires action (i.e., prospective component), but also retrieval of what is supposed to be done at the appropriate moment (i.e., retrospective component). The current study examined the role of attention and memory during PM tasks that placed distinct demands on detection and retrieval processes. Using a large-scale individual differences design, participants completed three PM tasks that placed high demands on detection (but low demands on retrieval) and three tasks that placed high demands on retrieval (but low demands on detection). Additionally, participants completed three attention control, retrospective memory, and working memory tasks. Latent variable structural equation modeling showed that the prospective and retrospective components of PM were jointly influenced by multiple cognitive abilities. Critically, attention and retrospective memory fully mediated the relation between working memory and prospective memory. Furthermore, only attention uniquely predicted PM detection, whereas only retrospective memory uniquely predicted PM retrieval. These findings highlight the value of independently assessing different PM components and suggest that both attention and memory abilities must be considered to fully understand the dynamic processes underlying prospective remembering.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 32-37
Tulika Ghosh ◽  
Dr. K.S. Sengar ◽  
A.R. Singh

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