working memory
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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 186-192
Kevin C.A. van Gool ◽  
Guusje Collin ◽  
Clemens C.C. Bauer ◽  
Elena Molokotos ◽  
Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Chiara F. Tagliabue ◽  
Greta Varesio ◽  
Veronica Mazza

Electroencephalography (EEG) studies investigating visuo-spatial working memory (vWM) in aging typically adopt an event-related potential (ERP) analysis approach that has shed light on the age-related changes during item retention and retrieval. However, this approach does not fully enable a detailed description of the time course of the neural dynamics related to aging. The most frequent age-related changes in brain activity have been described by two influential models of neurocognitive aging, the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) and the Posterior-Anterior Shift in Aging (PASA). These models posit that older adults tend to recruit additional brain areas (bilateral as predicted by HAROLD and anterior as predicted by PASA) when performing several cognitive tasks. We tested younger (N = 36) and older adults (N = 35) in a typical vWM task (delayed match-to-sample) where participants have to retain items and then compare them to a sample. Through a data-driven whole scalp EEG analysis we aimed at characterizing the temporal dynamics of the age-related activations predicted by the two models, both across and within different stages of stimulus processing. Behaviorally, younger outperformed older adults. The EEG analysis showed that older adults engaged supplementary bilateral posterior and frontal sites when processing different levels of memory load, in line with both HAROLD and PASA-like activations. Interestingly, these age-related supplementary activations dynamically developed over time. Indeed, they varied across different stages of stimulus processing, with HAROLD-like modulations being mainly present during item retention, and PASA-like activity during both retention and retrieval. Overall, the present results suggest that age-related neural changes are not a phenomenon indiscriminately present throughout all levels of cognitive processing.

2022 ◽  
pp. 108705472110636
John Hasslinger ◽  
Ulf Jonsson ◽  
Sven Bölte

Objective: To evaluate the effects of neurocognitive training methods on targeted cognitive functions in children and adolescent with ADHD. Method: A pragmatic four-arm randomized controlled trial compared two types of neurofeedback (Slow Cortical Potential and Live Z-score) and Working-memory training (WMT) with treatment as usual. N = 202 participants with ADHD aged 9 to 17 years were included. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and after 6-months. Results: The effects of WMT on spatial and verbal working-memory were superior to neurofeedback and treatment as usual at posttreatment, but only partially sustained at follow-up. No other consistent effects were observed. We found no clear indications that effects were moderated by ADHD presentation, ongoing medication, age, or sex. Conclusion: The sustained effects of neurocognitive training on cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with ADHD may be limited. Future research should focus on more personalized forms of neurocognitive training.

2022 ◽  
Stella M. Sanchez ◽  
Helmut Schmidt ◽  
Guillermo Gallardo ◽  
Alfred Anwander ◽  
Jens Brauer ◽  

Individual differences in the ability to deal with language have long been discussed. The neural basis of these, however, is yet unknown. Here we investigated the relationship between long-range white matter connectivity of the brain, as revealed by diffusion tractography, and the ability to process syntactically complex sentences in the participants' native language as well as the improvement thereof by multi-day training. We identified specific network motifs that indeed related white matter tractography to individual language processing performance. First, for two such motifs, one in the left and one in the right hemisphere, their individual prevalence significantly predicted the individual language performance suggesting a predisposition for the individual ability to process syntactically complex sentences, which manifests itself in the white matter brain structure. Both motifs comprise a number of cortical regions, but seem to be dominated by areas known for the involvement in working memory rather than the classical language network itself. Second, we identified another left hemispheric network motif, whose change of prevalence over the training period significantly correlated with the individual change in performance, thus reflecting training induced white matter plasticity. This motif comprises diverse cortical areas including regions known for their involvement in language processing, working memory and motor functions. The present findings suggest that individual differences in language processing and learning can be explained, in part, by individual differences in the brain's white matter structure. Brain structure may be a crucial factor to be considered when discussing variations in human cognitive performance, more generally.

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