context aware
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Yiji Zhao ◽  
Youfang Lin ◽  
Zhihao Wu ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Haomin Wen

Dynamic networks are widely used in the social, physical, and biological sciences as a concise mathematical representation of the evolving interactions in dynamic complex systems. Measuring distances between network snapshots is important for analyzing and understanding evolution processes of dynamic systems. To the best of our knowledge, however, existing network distance measures are designed for static networks. Therefore, when measuring the distance between any two snapshots in dynamic networks, valuable context structure information existing in other snapshots is ignored. To guide the construction of context-aware distance measures, we propose a context-aware distance paradigm, which introduces context information to enrich the connotation of the general definition of network distance measures. A Context-aware Spectral Distance (CSD) is then given as an instance of the paradigm by constructing a context-aware spectral representation to replace the core component of traditional Spectral Distance (SD). In a node-aligned dynamic network, the context effectively helps CSD gain mainly advantages over SD as follows: (1) CSD is not affected by isospectral problems; (2) CSD satisfies all the requirements of a metric, while SD cannot; and (3) CSD is computationally efficient. In order to process large-scale networks, we develop a kCSD that computes top- k eigenvalues to further reduce the computational complexity of CSD. Although kCSD is a pseudo-metric, it retains most of the advantages of CSD. Experimental results in two practical applications, i.e., event detection and network clustering in dynamic networks, show that our context-aware spectral distance performs better than traditional spectral distance in terms of accuracy, stability, and computational efficiency. In addition, context-aware spectral distance outperforms other baseline methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Dan Li ◽  
Tong Xu ◽  
Peilun Zhou ◽  
Weidong He ◽  
Yanbin Hao ◽  

Person search has long been treated as a crucial and challenging task to support deeper insight in personalized summarization and personality discovery. Traditional methods, e.g., person re-identification and face recognition techniques, which profile video characters based on visual information, are often limited by relatively fixed poses or small variation of viewpoints and suffer from more realistic scenes with high motion complexity (e.g., movies). At the same time, long videos such as movies often have logical story lines and are composed of continuously developmental plots. In this situation, different persons usually meet on a specific occasion, in which informative social cues are performed. We notice that these social cues could semantically profile their personality and benefit person search task in two aspects. First, persons with certain relationships usually co-occur in short intervals; in case one of them is easier to be identified, the social relation cues extracted from their co-occurrences could further benefit the identification for the harder ones. Second, social relations could reveal the association between certain scenes and characters (e.g., classmate relationship may only exist among students), which could narrow down candidates into certain persons with a specific relationship. In this way, high-level social relation cues could improve the effectiveness of person search. Along this line, in this article, we propose a social context-aware framework, which fuses visual and social contexts to profile persons in more semantic perspectives and better deal with person search task in complex scenarios. Specifically, we first segment videos into several independent scene units and abstract out social contexts within these scene units. Then, we construct inner-personal links through a graph formulation operation for each scene unit, in which both visual cues and relation cues are considered. Finally, we perform a relation-aware label propagation to identify characters’ occurrences, combining low-level semantic cues (i.e., visual cues) and high-level semantic cues (i.e., relation cues) to further enhance the accuracy. Experiments on real-world datasets validate that our solution outperforms several competitive baselines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Chuxu Zhang ◽  
Julia Kiseleva ◽  
Sujay Kumar Jauhar ◽  
Ryen W. White

People rely on task management applications and digital assistants to capture and track their tasks, and help with executing them. The burden of organizing and scheduling time for tasks continues to reside with users of these systems, despite the high cognitive load associated with these activities. Users stand to benefit greatly from a task management system capable of prioritizing their pending tasks, thus saving them time and effort. In this article, we make three main contributions. First, we propose the problem of task prioritization, formulating it as a ranking over a user’s pending tasks given a history of previous interactions with a task management system. Second, we perform an extensive analysis on the large-scale anonymized, de-identified logs of a popular task management application, deriving a dataset of grounded, real-world tasks from which to learn and evaluate our proposed system. We also identify patterns in how people record tasks as complete, which vary consistently with the nature of the task. Third, we propose a novel contextual deep learning solution capable of performing personalized task prioritization. In a battery of tests, we show that this approach outperforms several operational baselines and other sequential ranking models from previous work. Our findings have implications for understanding the ways people prioritize and manage tasks with digital tools, and in the design of support for users of task management applications.

During the recent years, there is an increasing demand for software systems that dynamically adapt their behavior at run-time in response to changes in user preferences, execution environment, and system requirements, being thus context-aware. Authors are referring here to requirements related to both functional and non-functional aspects of system behavior since changes can also be induced by failures or unavailability of parts of the software system itself. To ensure the coherence and correctness of the proposed model, all relevant properties of system entities are precisely and formally described. This is especially true for non-functional properties, such as performance, availability, and security. This article discusses semantic concepts for the specification of non-functional requirements, taking into account the specific needs of a context-aware system. Based on these semantic concepts, we present a specification language that integrates non-functional requirements design and validation in the development process of context-aware self-adaptive systems.

Goutam Mylavarapu ◽  
K. Ashwin Viswanathan ◽  
Johnson P. Thomas

Leila Kord Toudeshki ◽  
Mir Ali Seyyedi ◽  
Afshin Salajegheh

Business competency emerges in flexibility and reliability of services that an enterprise provides. To reach that, executing business processes on a context-aware business process management suite which is equipped with monitoring, modeling and adaptation mechanisms and smart enough to react properly using adaptation strategies at runtime, are a major requisite. In this paper, a context-aware architecture is described to bring adaptation to common business process execution software. The architecture comes with the how-to-apply methodology and is established based on process standards like business process modeling notation (BPMN), business process execution language (BPEL), etc. It follows MAPE-K adaptation cycle in which the knowledge, specifically contextual information and their related semantic rules — as the input of adaptation unit — is modeled in our innovative context ontology, which is also extensible for domain-specific purposes. Furthermore, to support separation of concerns, we took apart event-driven adaptation requirements from process instances; these requirements are triggered based on ontology reasoning. Also, the architecture supports fuzzy-based planning and extensible adaptation realization mechanisms to face new or changing situations adequately. We characterized our work in comparison with related studies based on five key adaptation metrics and also evaluated it using an online learning management system case study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 732
Abderrahim Lakehal ◽  
Adel Alti ◽  
Philippe Roose

This paper aims at ensuring an efficient recommendation. It proposes a new context-aware semantic-based probabilistic situations injection and adaptation using an ontology approach and Bayesian-classifier. The idea is to predict the relevant situations for recommending the right services. Indeed, situations are correlated with the user’s context. It can, therefore, be considered in designing a recommendation approach to enhance the relevancy by reducing the execution time. The proposed solution in which four probability-based-context rule situation items (user’s location and time, user’s role, their preferences and experiences) are chosen as inputs to predict user’s situations. Subsequently, the weighted linear combination is applied to calculate the similarity of rule items. The higher scores between the selected items are used to identify the relevant user’s situations. Three context parameters (CPU speed, sensor availability and RAM size) of the current devices are used to ensure adaptive service recommendation. Experimental results show that the proposed approach enhances accuracy rate with a high number of situations rules. A comparison with existing recommendation approaches shows that the proposed approach is more efficient and decreases the execution time.

2022 ◽  
Xueqing Wu ◽  
Yingce Xia ◽  
Jinhua Zhu ◽  
Lijun Wu ◽  
Shufang Xie ◽  

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