This chapter explores a number of societies of very different geographic locations, social structures, economic systems, and religious orientations in depth, using the analytical lens of the partnership-domination continuum. It illustrates how the divergent patterns associated with each orientation play out in our day-to-day life; shows that partnership and domination orientations can be found across a variety of cultural settings, ancient and modern; and demonstrates why a whole-systems analysis that includes the cultural construction of the formative parent-child and gender relations is vital if we are to move forward. It details how and why partnership-oriented cultures, such as the Moso, Teduray, Minangkabau, and Nordic nations, support more egalitarian, peaceful, empathetic, and caring ways of living.
The article aims to identify how varied factors (e.g., physical and socioeconomical) behind vulnerability of the urban poor in Dhaka’s low-income settlements interact with each other to constitute their overall vulnerability. It addresses the complexity of the issues involved which cannot be understood by having partial look at their vulnerability. Hence, it suggests a ‘whole systems’ view to understand the underlying phenomenon. Data collected through mixed methods were analysed using a grounded theory-systems analysis approach. It identifies the reinforcing loops developed within the systems that strongly promote poverty traps and also identifies ways in which these vicious circles can be broken.