Forager-Traders in South and Southeast Asia

2021 ◽  
pp. 112972982110113
Raja Ramachandran ◽  
Vinant Bhargava ◽  
Sanjiv Jasuja ◽  
Maurizio Gallieni ◽  
Vivekanand Jha ◽  

South and Southeast Asia is the most populated, heterogeneous part of the world. The Association of Vascular Access and InTerventionAl Renal physicians (AVATAR Foundation), India, gathered trends on epidemiology and Interventional Nephrology (IN) for this region. The countries were divided as upper-middle- and higher-income countries as Group-1 and lower and lower-middle-income countries as Group-2. Forty-three percent and 70% patients in the Group 1 and 2 countries had unplanned hemodialysis (HD) initiation. Among the incident HD patients, the dominant Vascular Access (VA) was non-tunneled central catheter (non-TCC) in 70% of Group 2 and tunneled central catheter (TCC) in 32.5% in Group 1 countries. Arterio-Venous Fistula (AVF) in the incident HD patients was observed in 24.5% and 35% of patients in Group-2 and Group-1, respectively. Eight percent and 68.7% of the prevalent HD patients in Group-2 and Group-1 received HD through an AVF respectively. Nephrologists performing any IN procedure were 90% and 60% in Group-2 and Group 1, respectively. The common procedures performed by nephrologists include renal biopsy (93.3%), peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion (80%), TCC (66.7%) and non-TCC (100%). Constraints for IN include lack of time (73.3%), lack of back-up (40%), lack of training (73.3%), economic issues (33.3%), medico-legal problems (46.6%), no incentive (20%), other interests (46.6%) and institution not supportive (26%). Routine VA surveillance is performed in 12.5% and 83.3% of Group-2 and Group-1, respectively. To conclude, non-TCC and TCC are the most common vascular access in incident HD patients in Group-2 and Group-1, respectively. Lack of training, back-up support and economic constraints were main constraints for IN growth in Group-2 countries.

2008 ◽  
Vol 36 (3) ◽  
pp. 387-431 ◽  
Diane A. Desierto

The development of international law in South and Southeast Asia exemplifies myriad ideological strands, historical origins, and significant contributions to contemporary international law doctrines’ formative and codification processes. From the beginnings of South and Southeast Asian participation in the international legal order, international law discourse from these regions has been thematicallypostcolonialand substantivelydevelopment-oriented.Postcolonialism in South and Southeast Asian conceptions of international law is an ongoing dialectical project of revisioning international legal thought and its normative directions — towards identifying, collocating, and applying South and Southeast Asian values and philosophical traditions alongside the Euro-American ideologies that, since the classical Post-Westphalian era, have largely infused the content of positivist international law. Of increasing necessity to the intricacies of the postmodern international legal system and its institutions is how the postcolonial project of South and Southeast Asian international legal discourse focuses on areas of international law that create the most urgent development consequences: trade, investment, and the international economic order; the law of the sea and the environment; international humanitarian law, self-determination, socio-economic and cultural human rights.

2014 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 128-133 ◽  
Shaodong Ye ◽  
Lin Pang ◽  
Xiaochun Wang ◽  
Zhongfu Liu

1992 ◽  
Vol 112 (4) ◽  
pp. 656
W. S. Sax ◽  
Joyce Burkhalter Flueckiger ◽  
Laurie J. Sears

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 265-294
Hiba Abid

Abstract The vast project to reconstruct a history and geography of the spread of the Dalāʾil al-Khayrāt necessarily involves looking into the beginnings of the prayerbook’s manuscript transmission. Composed in Morocco before 869/1465, the prayerbook was already known in the Eastern Maghreb from the mid-11th/17th century. It then reached Turkey and the rest of the Mashriq. After that it found its way to Central, South and Southeast Asia. Returning to the core of the book’s diffusion, this article questions the existence of an autograph copy of Dalāʾil al-Khayrāt. How was the manuscript tradition of one of the most copied religious books in pre-modern times established? This article also poses essential questions about the work of the actors (copyists, illuminators) responsible for the diffusion of the book in its early days.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document