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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrei Boar ◽  
Erola Palau Pinyana ◽  
Marc Oliveras-Villanueva

PurposeThis paper takes a critical view of synergies and trade-offs and discloses the practices that countries and companies should apply to achieve sustainable development.Design/methodology/approachThis paper offers a systematic literature review of 408 papers to find models of sustainable development goals (SDGs) interaction with the aim of shedding light on the existing synergies and trade-offs and finding solutions to enhance these synergies and minimize the trade-offs.FindingsBoth rich and developing countries should follow multiple strategies to improve the quality of life of their citizens. Developing countries should focus on eradicating poverty. Rich countries should apply new economic models that are more likely to be environmental-friendly. Finally, the topic of SDGs should be revisited by the United Nations.Practical implicationsBoosting the quality of education and providing clean energy are two of the most relevant actions that should to be taken by countries, as they will accelerate the fulfilment of all the other SDGs. The use of circular economic models or new business models, such as the sharing economy, is essential to the achievement of sustained economic growth without negative environmental impact.Originality/valueThe paper analyzes SDG interactions and offers a critical vision of practices that countries and companies should adhere to for achieving sustainable development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 147 ◽  
pp. 105605
Author(s):  
Elijah Frimpong Boadu ◽  
Riza Yosia Sunindijo ◽  
Cynthia Changxin Wang ◽  
Samuel Frimpong

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenyu Liang ◽  
Qiong Meng ◽  
Qiaohuan Yang ◽  
Na Chen ◽  
Chuming You

The burden of lower respiratory infections is primarily evident in the developing countries. However, the association between size-specific particulate matter and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) outpatient visits in the developing countries has been less studied. We obtained data on ALRI outpatient visits (N = 105,639) from a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou, China between 2013 and 2019. Over-dispersed generalized additive Poisson models were employed to evaluate the excess risk (ER) associated with the size-specific particulate matter, such as inhalable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PMc), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Counterfactual analyses were used to examine the potential percent reduction of ALRI outpatient visits if the levels of air pollution recommended by the WHO were followed. There were 35,310 pneumonia, 68,218 bronchiolitis, and 2,111 asthma outpatient visits included. Each 10 μg/m3 increase of 3-day moving averages of particulate matter was associated with a significant ER (95% CI) of outpatient visits of pneumonia (PM2.5: 3.71% [2.91, 4.52%]; PMc: 9.19% [6.94, 11.49%]; PM10: 4.36% [3.21, 5.52%]), bronchiolitis (PM2.5: 3.21% [2.49, 3.93%]; PMc: 9.13% [7.09, 11.21%]; PM10: 3.12% [2.10, 4.15%]), and asthma (PM2.5: 3.45% [1.18, 5.78%]; PMc: 11.69% [4.45, 19.43%]; PM10: 3.33% [0.26, 6.49%]). The association between particulate matter and pneumonia outpatient visits was more evident in men patients and in the cold seasons. Counterfactual analyses showed that PM2.5 was associated with a larger potential decline of ALRI outpatient visits compared with PMc and PM10 (pneumonia: 11.07%, 95% CI: [7.99, 14.30%]; bronchiolitis: 6.30% [4.17, 8.53%]; asthma: 8.14% [2.65, 14.33%]) if the air pollutants were diminished to the level of the reference guidelines. In conclusion, short-term exposures to PM2.5, PMc, and PM10 are associated with ALRI outpatient visits, and PM2.5 is associated with the highest potential decline in outpatient visits if it could be reduced to the levels recommended by the WHO.


2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 689-717
Author(s):  
Folorunsho M. Ajide ◽  
Tolulope T. Osinubi ◽  
James T. Dada

An increasing number of studies are examining the relationship between entrepreneurship and growth. This relationship is controversial, especially for developing countries. Recent improvements in economic growth have led to a focus on growth inclusiveness, which spreads economic opportunities throughout a society. However, studies that focus on the role of entrepreneurship in inclusive growth remain scarce. To fill that gap, this study investigates the dynamic relationship between economic globalization, entrepreneurship, and inclusive growth in 21 African countries using panel econometrics to examine data covering 2006 to 2018. The results reveal that the impact of economic globalization and entrepreneurship on inclusive growth is positive and significant. We find that economic globalization enhances entrepreneurial development, and causality tests show that economic globalization drives inclusive growth. We also find a unidirectional causality from entrepreneurship to inclusive growth. Finally, we observe no direction of causality between economic globalization and entrepreneurship but observe a bidirectional causality between governance and entrepreneurship. We discuss the implications of these results.


2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 626-688
Author(s):  
Sèna Kimm Gnangnon

This is the first study to examine the effect of productive capacities on economic complexity and understand whether the Aid for Trade (AfT) flows is important for this effect in recipient countries. The analysis uses a sample of 126 developed and developing countries for 2002-2018 and adopts the two-step system Generalized Method of Moments approach. Results show that strengthening productive capacities enhances economic complexity. Furthermore, productive capacities and total AfT flows are strongly complementary in positively affecting economic complexity, and the degree of complementarity is higher for poor countries than for other AfT-recipient countries. Similarly, productive capacities are strongly complementary with total Non-AfT flows, as well as for total development aid. These findings highlight the need for scaling-up development aid flows, notably AfT flows, in favor of developing countries and poor countries having the lowest levels of productive capacities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (43) ◽  
pp. 109-124
Author(s):  
Mukesh Kumar Bastola

Since the 1980s, due to the failure of previous development strategies, nongovernmental organizations have emerged as major actors in development, particularly in developing countries like Nepal. However, in recent years, most countries have perceived that NGOs are not operating genuinely to fulfill their expected goals.  In this context, this paper set out to answer two questions: why NGOs tend to represent donors' preferences and why developing countries like Nepal become unable to adopt strict NGO regulations. It is based on the analysis of archival documents and review of previous study findings and draws insights from resource dependence theory. It concludes that when NGOs depend on external donors for financial resources, they are compelled to represent donor's interests. Similarly, aid-dependent developing countries like Nepal often hesitate to adopt strict NGO regulations because of the fear of external pressure from their donor agencies. Thus, resource dependency makes both NGOs and the governments unable to resist the pressure of donor agencies. Its conclusions can be useful to adopt an appropriate framework to regulate NGOs in Nepal.


2021 ◽  
Vol 111 (12) ◽  
pp. 3827-3871
Author(s):  
M. Chatib Basri ◽  
Mayara Felix ◽  
Rema Hanna ◽  
Benjamin A. Olken

We compare two approaches to increasing tax revenue: tax administration and tax rates. We show that when Indonesia moved top regional firms into “medium taxpayer offices,” with high staff-to-taxpayer ratios, tax revenue more than doubled. Examining nonlinear changes to corporate income tax rates, we estimate an elasticity of taxable income of 0.579. Combining these estimates, improved tax administration is equivalent to raising top rates on all firms by 8 percentage points. On net, improved tax administration can have significant returns for developing countries. (JEL H25, H26, K34, O17)


2021 ◽  
pp. 097370302110621
Author(s):  
Ajit Kumar Singh

The relationship between population growth and economic development has remained a controversial topic since the time of Malthus. Opinion among the scholars on this issue is sharply divided. This article examines the theoretical arguments about the likely consequences—positive or negative—of higher population growth on economic development and looks at the empirical findings on the issue based on the survey of literature in the field. The article traces the historical profile of demographic change in the developed and the developing countries over the last two centuries and analyses the factors behind them with particular reference to China and India. The implications of the findings for population control policy are also examined. There is a growing realisation of the fact that fertility decline is dependent upon socio-economic development. There is a general consensus among demographers that policies for fertility reduction should stress voluntary decisions on the part of the individuals concerned rather than compulsion and should be conceived in the context of a much wider programme for social, economic, and political development. The positive and negative incentives in this situation have a limited role to play in this context.


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