Bloodstream Infections
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Fernando Oliveira ◽  
Tânia Lima ◽  
Alexandra Correia ◽  
Ana Margarida Silva ◽  
Cristina Soares ◽  

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens and a major cause of central line-associated bloodstream infections. Once in the bloodstream, this bacterium must surpass severe iron restriction in order to survive and establish infection.

2022 ◽  
pp. 112972982110706
Mara Waters ◽  
Ella Huszti ◽  
Maria Erika Ramirez ◽  
Charmaine E. Lok

Background and objectives: Fibrin sheath (FS) formation around tunneled central venous catheters (CVC) increases the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections due to bacterial adherence to a biofilm. We sought to investigate whether FS disruption (FSD) at the time of CVC removal or exchange affects infectious outcomes in patients with CVC-related infections. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: Retrospective cohort study of 307 adult maintenance hemodialysis patients aged 18 years or older at a single center academic-based hemodialysis program (UHN, Toronto) who developed CVC-related infections requiring CVC removal or exchange between January 2000 and January 2019. Exposure was FSD at the time of CVC removal or exchange. Outcomes were infectious metastatic complications, recurrent infection with the same organism within 1 year, or death due to infection. We created a Markov Multi-State Model (MMSM) to assess patients’ trajectories through time as they transitioned between states. A time-to-event analysis was performed, adjusted for clinically relevant factors. Results: There was no significant relationship between FSD status at the time of CVC removal, the development of infectious complications in the multivariable model (adjusted HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.09−5.80, p = 0.76), or mortality from infection (HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.34−2.11, p = 0.73). Conclusions: FSD at the time of CVC removal was not associated with increased risk of infectious complications or death due to infection. Further prospective study is needed to determine whether FSD contributes to reducing CVC infectious related complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shuzhen Xiao ◽  
Chenyue Tang ◽  
Qian Zeng ◽  
Yilun Xue ◽  
Qing Chen ◽  

Background: Bloodstream infections are recognized as important nosocomial infections. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most prevalent Gram-negative bacillary pathogen causing bloodstream infections (BSIs). This retrospective study investigated drug susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of E. coli isolated from patients with BSI in Shanghai, China.Methods: We collected E. coli isolated from the blood cultures of patients with BSI between January 2016 and December 2019. We randomly selected 20 strains each year to investigate antimicrobial resistance, resistance genes, and molecular epidemiological characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. PCR was performed to detect extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemase genes, and housekeeping genes, and phyloviz was applied to analyze multilocus sequence typing (MLST).Results: Penicillins, first- and second-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones have high resistance rates (>60%). Among the 80 randomly selected strains, 47 (58.8%) produced ESBLs, and one produced carbapenemase. Sequencing of resistance genes identified blaCTX−M−14 (34%, 16/47), blaCTX−M−15 (23.4%, 11/47) and blaCTX−M−27 (14.8%, 7/47) as the most prevalent genotypes of ESBLs. ST131 (14/80) was the most prevalent sequence type (ST), followed by ST1193 (10/80), ST648 (7/80).Conclusions: Our findings suggest that amikacin, carbapenems, and piperacillin-tazobactam have relatively low resistance rates and may be the preferred antibiotic regimens for empiric therapy. ST131 and blaCTX−M−14 are still the main prevalent in Shanghai with a rapid increase in the occurrence of ST1193 is rapidly increasing and more diverse blaCTX genes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Carlos L. Correa-Martínez ◽  
Annette Jurke ◽  
Janne Schmitz ◽  
Frieder Schaumburg ◽  
Stefanie Kampmeier ◽  

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose a public health challenge worldwide. While VRE bloodstream infections (VREBI) increase in Germany and Europe, population-based molecular data are scarce. We aimed to analyze the molecular epidemiology, demographic aspects, and geographical distribution of VREBI in the German Federal State of North-Rhine–Westphalia (NRW), located in the German–Dutch–Belgian border area, representing over 20% of Germany’s population. VREBI isolates were collected from hospitals across NRW between 2016 and 2019. Demographic data were gathered and anonymized upon sample collection. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and identification of glycopeptide resistance were carried out. Epidemiological analysis and geographical mapping were performed. Single VREBI isolates from 755 patients were analyzed. In total, 38.9% were female, and 80.0% were aged ≥ 60 years. The VREBI incidence per 100,000 inhabitants nearly tripled, from 0.52 (2016) to 1.48 (2019), particularly in male patients aged ≥ 50 years. The proportion of vanB reached 83% (n = 202/243) in 2018, overtaking vanA as the predominant glycopeptide resistance determinant, detected in close relation with ST117 isolates. The proportion of MLST sequence type (ST) 117 peaked in 2018, at 78.2% (n = 190/243). The major role of these emerging strains in invasive infections in central Europe requires novel strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xingchen Bian ◽  
Xiaofen Liu ◽  
Fupin Hu ◽  
Meiqing Feng ◽  
Yuancheng Chen ◽  

The latest PK/PD findings have demonstrated negligible efficacy of intravenous polymyxins against pulmonary infections. We investigated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD)-based breakpoints of polymyxin B for bloodstream infections and the rationality of the recent withdrawal of polymyxin susceptibility breakpoints by the CLSI. Polymyxin B pharmacokinetic data were obtained from a phase I clinical trial in healthy Chinese subjects and population pharmacokinetic parameters were employed to determine the exposure of polymyxin B at steady state. MICs of 1,431 recent clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from across China were determined. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed for various dosing regimens (0.42–1.5 mg/kg/12 h via 1 or 2-h infusion). The probability of target attainment, PK/PD breakpoints and cumulative fraction of response were determined for each bacterial species. MIC90 of polymyxin B was 1 mg/L for P. aeruginosa and 0.5 mg/L for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. With the recommended polymyxin B dose of 1.5–2.5 mg/kg/day, the PK/PD susceptible breakpoints for P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were 2, 1 and 1 mg/L respectively for bloodstream infection. For Chinese patients, polymyxin B dosing regimens of 0.75–1.5 mg/kg/12 h for P. aeruginosa and 1–1.5 mg/kg/12 h for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were appropriate. Breakpoint determination should consider the antimicrobial PK/PD at infection site and delivery route. The recent withdrawal of polymyxin susceptible breakpoint by CLSI primarily based on poor efficacy against lung infections needs to be reconsidered for bloodstream infections.

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