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Kota Akshith Reddy ◽  
Satish C J ◽  
Jahnavi Polsani ◽  
Teja Naveen Chintapalli ◽  

Automatic Image Caption Generation is one of the core problems in the field of Deep Learning. Data Augmentation is a technique which helps in increasing the amount of data at hand and this is done by augmenting the training data using various techniques like flipping, rotating, Zooming, Brightening, etc. In this work, we create an Image Captioning model and check its robustness on all the major types of Image Augmentation techniques. The results show the fuzziness of the model while working with the same image but a different augmentation technique and because of this, a different caption is produced every time a different data augmentation technique is employed. We also show the change in the performance of the model after applying these augmentation techniques. Flickr8k dataset is used for this study along with BLEU score as the evaluation metric for the image captioning model.

2021 ◽  
Nils Rauer ◽  
Alexander Bibi

Abstract Digital content is the core asset and currency of the internet. However, there is a common and well-founded perception that those who create this content do not participate in the revenue generated online as they ought to. Adequate protection by way of a modern and concise copyright regime is rightly deemed to be the answer to this dilemma. Accordingly, the legislator has made several attempts to keep pace with the technological developments of the last two decades. Still, it remains a struggle. The latest legislative amendment within European copyright law has created a very interesting tool kit. New liabilities and licensing obligations for major service providers come hand in hand with the opportunity to obtain extended collective licenses. Deploying these tools in a sensible and dovetailed way could be highly rewarding. The following article looks more closely into this opportunity.

2021 ◽  
Jake Monaghan

Political philosophy often focuses on “major institutions” that make up the “basic structure” of society. These include political, economic, and social institutions. In this paper I argue first that policing plays a substantial role in generating the kinds of inequalities and problems that are concerns of social or structural justice, and therefore that police agencies qualify as a major institution. When we abandon full compliance or similar idealizations, it is clear that policing is not a concern secondary to, e.g., the electoral system or the scheme of property rights in a society. Nor, I argue, does maintaining full compliance or moral character idealizations obviate an active enforcement role. Eliminating that role from an idealized model society requires engaging in a methodologically and substantively unattractive amount of abstraction. The result is that an active enforcement role is at the core of a complete theory of justice rather than something that is significant only “downstream” from more fundamental issues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Lingfang Wang ◽  
Xing Du ◽  
Qiqi Li ◽  
Wangjun Wu ◽  
Zengxiang Pan ◽  

AbstractTransforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is essential for ovarian function and female fertility in mammals. Herein, we identified three completely linked variants, including two known variants referred to as c.1583A > G and c.1587A > G and the novel variant c.2074A > C in the porcine TGF-β1 3′-UTR. An important role of these variants in Yorkshire sow fertility was revealed. Variants c.1583A > G and c.1587A > G were located at the miRNA response element (MRE) of miR-2337 and affected miR-2337 regulation of TGF-β1 3′-UTR activity. Interestingly, miR-2337 induces, not reduces the transcription and production of TGF-β1 in granulosa cells (GCs). Mechanistically, miR-2337 enhances TGF-β1 promoter activity via the MRE motif in the core promoter region and alters histone modifications, including H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9me2, and H3K9ac. In addition, miR-2337 controls TGF-β1-mediated activity of the TGF-β signaling pathway and GC apoptosis. Taken together, our findings identify miR-2337 as an endogenous small activating RNA (saRNA) of TGF-β1 in GCs, while miR-2337 is identified as a small activator of the TGF-β signaling pathway which is expected to be a new target for rescuing GC apoptosis and treating low fertility.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (18) ◽  
pp. 5664
Imran Ahmad Khan ◽  
Musaddique Hussain ◽  
Shaukat Hussain Munawar ◽  
Muhammad Omer Iqbal ◽  
Shafia Arshad ◽  

Jasminum sambac (L.) is a South Asian folkloric medicinal plant that has traditionally been used to treat cardiovascular problems. The current investigation was meticulously organized to explore the pharmacological foundation for the medicinal uses of J. sambac pertaining to cardiovascular ailments and to investigate the core mechanisms. Mechanistic investigation revealed that crude leaf extract of J. sambac produced ex-vivo vasorelaxant effects in endotheliumintact aorta ring preparation and hypotensive effect was recorded via pressure and force transducers coupled to the Power Lab Data Acquisition System. Moreover; J. sambac showed cardioprotective effects against adrenaline -induced left ventricular hypertrophy in rabbits observed hemodynamic. CK-MB, LDH, troponin, CRP, ALT, AST, ALP levels were shown to be lower in the myocardial infarction model, as were necrosis, oedema, and inflammatory cell recruitment in comparison to control. J. sambac has shown good antioxidant potential as well as prolonged the noradrenaline induced platelet adhesion. The vasorelaxant and cardioprotective effects in both in vivo and ex vivo experiments, which are enabled by activation of muscarinic receptor and/or releasing the nitric oxide and by reducing the adrenaline, induced oxidative stress, justifying its usage in cardiovascular disorders.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-33
Jarmo Seppälä ◽  
Pasi Nevalainen ◽  
Pekka Mattila ◽  
Mikko Laukkanen

The transfer of American management ideas was a central part of the Cold War struggle over ideologies. A key mediator was the European Recovery Program, which conveyed American influences to European management specialists. However, a direct influence was not always possible, as in Finland, which officially blocked assistance because of foreign policy considerations. Still, it was among the first countries to follow Harvard University’s lead in launching advanced management training. We examine how and why the focal actors adopted the American model of executive education, and how they managed to translate foreign ideas persuasively to the local business elite. The translation of executive education to Finland was a lengthy process that involved modification and readjustment of the original idea according to emerging needs. The Advanced Management Program became the core of the curriculum of Finland’s leading executive education institution and thus has influenced the emergence of new business culture.

Kjersti Forbech Henriksen ◽  
Britt Sætre Hansen ◽  
Hilde Wøien ◽  
Siri Tønnessen

2021 ◽  
pp. 0961463X2110294
Guillaume Wunsch ◽  
Federica Russo ◽  
Michel Mouchart ◽  
Renzo Orsi

This article deals with the role of time in causal models in the social sciences. The aim is to underline the importance of time-sensitive causal models, in contrast to time-free models. The relation between time and causality is important, though a complex one, as the debates in the philosophy of science show. In particular, an outstanding issue is whether one can derive causal ordering from time ordering. The article examines how time is taken into account in demography and in economics as examples of social sciences in which considerations about time may diverge. We then present structural causal modeling as a modeling strategy that, while not essentially based on temporal information, can incorporate it in a more or less explicit way. In particular, we argue that temporal information is useful to the extent that it is placed in a correct causal structure, thus further corroborating the causal mechanism or generative process explaining the phenomenon under consideration. Despite the fact that the causal ordering of variables is more relevant than the temporal order for explanatory purposes, in establishing causal ordering the researcher should nevertheless take into account the time-patterns of causes and effects, as these are often episodes rather than single events. For this reason in particular, it is time to put time at the core of our causal models.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 10043
Sulagna Dutta ◽  
Pallav Sengupta ◽  
Petr Slama ◽  
Shubhadeep Roychoudhury

Inflammation is among the core causatives of male infertility. Despite male infertility being a serious global issue, “bits and pieces” of its complex etiopathology still remain missing. During inflammation, levels of proinflammatory mediators in the male reproductive tract are greater than usual. According to epidemiological research, in numerous cases of male infertility, patients suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract which typically occurs without symptoms. Inflammatory responses in the male genital system are inextricably linked to oxidative stress (OS). OS is detrimental to male fertility parameters as it causes oxidative damage to reproductive cells and intracellular components. Multifarious male infertility causative factors pave the way for impairing male reproductive functions via the common mechanisms of OS and inflammation, both of which are interlinked pathophysiological processes, and the occurrence of any one of them induces the other. Both processes may be simultaneously found in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Thus, the present article aims to explain the role of inflammation and OS in male infertility in detail, as well as to show the mechanistic pathways that link causative factors of male reproductive tract inflammation, OS induction, and oxidant-sensitive cellular cascades leading to male infertility.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1221
Shi-Qi Yang ◽  
Jia Xing ◽  
Wen-Ying Chen ◽  
Fen Li ◽  
Yun Zhu

Efficient environmental policies are necessary in the improvement of air quality and reduction in carbon emissions, and the interactions between policy, activity, emissions, and environment comprise a cycle allowing the evaluation of the effects of implemented policies. Based on the establishment of the connection between environmental parameters and policy context using a quantifiable methodology, in this study, we formulated a rapid and simplified pattern for the evaluation of the effects of policies concerning the atmospheric environment, and applied it to the evaluation and improvement of policies for Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction and air quality enhancement in the sample city of Shenzhen. The Response Surface Model-Visualization and Analysis Tool (RSM-VAT) in the Air Benefit and Cost and Attainment Assessment System (ABaCAS) was applied as the core tool. The required reductions in Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions for 2014–2019 are expected to be achieved; however, the expected reductions in Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (mainly from road mobile sources) and Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions (mainly from secondary industry and road mobile sources) are less certain. According to the simulated concentration of PM2.5 in 2019, it is necessary to reduce the concentrations of air pollutants, both within and outside Shenzhen. The background weather conditions may be the main reason for the increased concentrations of Ozone (O3) in October compared to those in July. Reductions in NOx and VOCs tend to be the main factors driving changes in O3 concentrations. Policies have been formulated and implemented in a wide array of areas. According to the quantitative comparative analysis of the policies, and the relevant activities, the greatest challenge in reducing NOx and VOCs emissions is presented by the oil-powered vehicles in the road mobile sector and organic solvent production in the secondary industry sector. Therefore, in an effort to achieve better air quality and ensure that CO2 emissions reach a peak in Shenzhen by 2025, we propose key improvements in policies based on interdisciplinary cooperation, involving not only atmospheric and environmental science, but also governance and urban planning.

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