102 article(s) in Canadian Journal of Bioethics

L’Instrumentalisation Des Sites Archéologiques Incas. Questions D’Éthique

on the occasion of peru’s independence, the champions of the creole nation elevated the inca state indian to the status of a respectable ancestor, thus eliminating the amerindian historicity of the population. the archaeological remains provide support to an indigenist ideology that ignores the sociological indian, considered to be ontologically inferior. today, these inca vestiges contribute to the construction of the national narrative: the inca solar cult is thus reinvented on the site of sacsayhuaman. to what extent can the work of archaeologists serve to corroborate partisan ideologies? the presidents of the peruvian and bolivian republics were inducted as pre-hispanic rulers, the first on the inca site of machu picchu, the second at the tiwanaku sun gate. to what extent can the vestiges of a civilization be instrumentalized by politics? the inca sites are now assailed by new age mystics from the united states and europe under the leadership of local neo-shamans. they are indeed reputed to carry positive “energy”, one that is exploited by mystical tourism agencies. to what extent can the heritage of the nation, maintained by public services, be the object of private profits, ideologies that may be sectarian and possibly irreparable damages? in the culture of traditional andean communities, the pre-hispanic ruins had a classificatory and symbolic function. this function disappears when the setting of a myth is replaced by a historical site. how can we respect the indigenous perception of archaeological remains? these are the ethical questions that this article seeks to raise on the basis of specific and concrete cases of archaeological sites on which the author has carried out excavations Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Archaeological Remains
  • The United States
  • Positive Energy
  • National Narrative
Un Besoin D'éthique En Archéologie

this introductory text provides a summary of the archaeo-ethics conference held in paris on may 25-26 2018. it also introduces the texts in this special issue devoted to ethics in archaeology, proceedings of the conference. the texts have been separated into five parts:"what collaborations between archaeologists and local populations?", "(re-)appropriation or instrumentalization of archaeological research?",“what collaborations between professional archaeologists and heritage enthusiasts (from qualified amateurs to looters)?”, "human remains, archaeological remains unlike any other", and "archaeology in the face of a management imperative: what consequences for our practice?". two transversal papers serve as an introduction and conclusion to the volume, which starts with this editorial and is closed with a conclusion by the conference organizers Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Remains
  • Archaeological Research
  • Archaeological Remains
  • Special Issue
  • Local Populations
Archéologie Et Politique / Archéologie Et Décroissance

this text analyses how the values of neo-liberal society have determined the evolution of archaeological practice in france, whether it be research or preliminary to landscaping projects. it calls for the definition of a different archaeology, in a world without development Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Liberal Society
  • Archaeological Practice
Le Détectorisme En France : Quelle Situation Et Quelle Politique Publique

the conservation of france’s archaeological heritage has been seriously threatened for several decades by users of metal detectors. to curb this scourge, which undermines research and conservation of the remains, the state implements educational and repressive measures Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The State
  • Politique Publique
  • Archaeological Heritage
  • Metal Detectors
Quelques Propositions Nouvelles Pour L’Éthique En Archéologie

in this conclusion of the special issue “archaeo-ethics”, we summarise the findings and analyses of several texts in this issue, as well as the most common solutions suggested by the authors Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Special Issue
À Qui Appartient Le Passé? Perspectives Nord-Américaines Sur L’Appropriation Du Patrimoine Archéologique

prehistoric archeology in north america is driven by a process of decolonization that forces us to question and redefine its practices, as well as its links with aboriginal communities and their archaeological heritage. no longer having the monopoly of discourse on this heritage, archaeologists are developing new approaches that are more collaborative, multivocal and socially relevant. the question of appropriating the past remains problematic, however, as it is subject to debates opposing sociopolitical and interpretative positions that are sometimes difficult to reconcile. this article provides a brief overview of the situation and the resulting ethical challenges, illustrated by a contemporary case study located in montreal Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Case Study
  • North America
  • Ethical Challenges
  • Aboriginal Communities
  • Archaeological Heritage
“I Like To Keep My Archaeology Dead”. Alienation And Othering Of The Past As An Ethical Problem

as archaeologists, we have to deal with the dead, and as david clarke once said, we like to keep our archaeology dead. from an epistemological perspective, alienation from the dead seems almost inevitable; otherwise, we would only project today’s conditions onto the past. therefore, the past must be, and must remain, a foreign country. these alienating processes have ethical implications, however, especially when it comes to the study of human remains. in this article, we analyze the structures within the scientific discipline of archaeology that normalize practices, such as the labeling of human bone material during excavations and the object-like display of skeletons in museums. we argue that archaeologists have an – often rejected – ethical responsibility towards subjects from the past. we, therefore, seek to open up a debate concerning alternative strategies for the treatment of the dead Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Past
  • The Dead
  • Ethical Responsibility
  • Bone Material
  • Ethical Implications
Le Sexisme En Archéologie, Ça N’Existe Pas

archaeologists are confronted with many ethical issues in their daily practice; these questions also concern their practices and their behaviour towards their peers. the highlighting of gender discrimination, sometimes combined with other elements such as ethnicity, sexual orientation, social origin, physical abilities or religious beliefs, should thus be a fundamental element in reflections on professional ethics in archaeology. the “archaeo-sexism” exhibition presented here, a joint initiative of the archaeo-ethics association and paye ta truelle, is an example of such reflection Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sexual Orientation
  • Gender Discrimination
  • Professional Ethics
  • Ethical Issues
  • Social Origin
Les Restes Humains Et L'archéologie : État Des Lieux Juridique

the subject of human remains in archaeology is linked to ethical or societal issues that call into question the notion of “dignity” and therefore of “respect” due to the human body. in archaeological research, the “human remain” is, to a certain extent, an object of study like other archaeological objects. this normality results from the scientific nature of the process, but also from the anonymity that is most often attached to the human remains uncovered. this duality between ethics and professional deontology is logically reflected in the subject’s legal understanding. there are thus general standards in civil law or funeral law that do not specifically concern archaeology, but which may apply to some of its situations. specific standards are needed to reconcile the ethical issues related to human remains with the scientific issues of archaeology. but defining such standards is not easy, as evidenced by recent work in france on the law on freedom of creation, architecture and heritage (lcap Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Remains
  • Recent Work
  • Human Body
  • The Subject
  • Archaeological Objects
De Nouvelles Normes À L’Égard Des Restes Humains Anciens : De La Réification À La Personnalisation

the norms regarding human remains, old or new, are changing; we are witnessing unprecedented adjustments that tend to humanize these remains. some of these, in very different contexts, are now treated as mortal remains and can benefit from treatment that could be qualified as funeral and lead to the cemetery. these changes are frequently interpreted as the result of the expression of ties (family ties, community affiliation) that promote a grieving process or a memory dynamic. however, a second trend is at work to apply principles dedicated to mortal remains, including the principle of human dignity, to human remains that have until now been reified. this trend can be observed at two levels, that of legal doctrine and that of practice. this article is based on an example from a recent preventive archaeological excavation, that captures both the issues and the responses adopted in situ about the trajectory and fate of these human remains Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Remains
  • In Situ
  • Human Dignity
  • Grieving Process
  • Memory Dynamic
Ethical Issues In Indigenous Archaeology: Problems With Difference And Collaboration

the critique of archaeology made from an indigenous and postcolonial perspective has been largely accepted, at least in theory, in many settler colonies, from canada to new zealand. in this paper, i would like to expand such critique in two ways: on the one hand, i will point out some issues that have been left unresolved; on the other hand, i will address indigenous and colonial experiences that are different from british settler colonies, which have massively shaped our understanding of indigeneity and the relationship of archaeology to it. i am particularly concerned with two key problems: alterity – how archaeologists conceptualize difference – and collaboration – how archaeologists imagine their relationship with people from a different cultural background. my reflections are based on my personal experiences working with communities in southern europe, sub-saharan africa and south america that differ markedly from those usually discussed by indigenous archaeologies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • New Zealand
  • South America
  • The Other
  • Sub Saharan Africa
  • Personal Experiences
L’Éthique En Archéologie, Quels Enjeux Normatifs? Approches Françaises

the ethical issues facing archaeologists must be considered in close coordination with the legal framework governing their activity. ethics is defined as a “set of principles and values that guide social and professional behaviour”. it can inspire both laws and professional practices, referring to duties inherent to the exercise of a specific activity. the link between ethics and law, built from these multiple sources, is therefore complex. this contribution aims to understand these multiple forms of normativities and their interactions. several examples are particularly interesting from this point of view: that of the treatment of funerary archaeology which puts under tension the scientific interest and the principle of human dignity, sometimes also the expression of collective rights; that of scientific production and the sharing of the results and data on which they are based; that of the diligence to be observed in a context of possible looting; and also that of the articulation between scientific and heritage interest. the particular nature of the archaeological heritage, as soon as it is revealed at the moment of a discovery, will give rise to specific rules in both domestic and international law at the intersection of law and deontology, a relationship in which there could be a breach of law by deontology. these forms of internormativity are doubly manifest in the process of patrimonialization and when there is question of the appropriation of tangible elements, such as data Show More ... ... Show Less

  • International Law
  • Human Dignity
  • Scientific Interest
  • Multiple Forms
  • Funerary Archaeology
L'éthique Du Care En Archéologie Préventive : Un Retour D'expérience Et Quelques Pistes De Réflexion

after reviewing what constitutes preventive archaeology, i propose mobilizing, for this field of activity, the notion of an ethics of care. this notion is polysemous and has ethical, sociological and political dimensions. it does not remain theoretical but is instead rooted in reality and in the full diversity of practices. an ethics of care can offer new avenues for reflection and action for archaeologists, but also for supervisory staff and the various archaeology institutions to gain a new understanding of the behaviours, discourses, practices and practical needs of archaeologists. over the past twenty years, archaeologists have had to integrate the presence of multiple professional risk factors, in the face of which attitudes and discourse have varied between responsibility, prevention and sometimes denial. archaeologists work in a variety of terrains where their bodies and practices intersect and reflect their “embedded” relationships in archaeological sites and remains. archaeologists’ field areas are also places of sociability where their professional identities and collective histories are built, which are a very powerful glue for the functioning of their social groups. the importance of these interdependent relationships is also emphasized by an ethics of care Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Ethics Of Care
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Groups
  • Archaeological Sites
  • Professional Identities
Archéologie Et Éthique : Quelle Place Pour Les Spéléologues

speleologists are at the same time explorers, observers and users of the underground world which contains many heritages. while the imperative obligation to guarantee the most effective protection for these heritages is shared by all, the text tries to take into account the different regulatory statutes that apply to archaeological remains, living and abiotic heritages. however, ethics consists precisely in rebalancing, as much as possible, these different levels of regulation. exploration speleology obviously aims to discover new cavities and new networks, and even if this is not their primary motivation, speleologists are sometimes led to discover archaeological remains as well. these discoveries, obtained by different means, lead to a rethinking of the conditions of access to the underground world, generally strongly defended by speleologists. a dialogue must then be established with archaeologists so that the protection and study of these remains is not at the detriment of conservation or the various stakeholders. ethical responsibility is thus shared Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Archaeological Remains
  • Ethical Responsibility
  • Effective Protection
  • Primary Motivation
  • Different Levels
L’Archéologie Préventive, Une Source De Solutions Pour Demain? Réflexions Sur Les Enjeux Scientifiques Et Sociétaux De L’Archéologie Préventive Face Aux Effets Délétères Du Néo-Libéralisme

in recent decades, rescue archaeology in europe has uncovered a much larger number of remains than planned archaeology. the mass of information resulting from this preventive research is such that its processing is a colossal task, but also unavoidable if preventive excavations are not to become synonymous with the destruction of the remains – which is precisely what they are supposed to prevent. the effort that our society must make (in terms of time and financial resources in particular) may seem heavy, even insurmountable to some; nevertheless, this effort is imperative and essential, because preventive excavations raise major challenges, both scientific and societal. this article aims to detail these issues and analyse them in the light of the deleterious effects of neoliberal logic on rescue archaeology and the associated ecological and societal difficulties Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Financial Resources
L’Archéologie De La Mort Face Aux Temps Récents : Pratiques Et Questionnements Éthiques À Partir D’Une Étude De Cas

based on an undocumented excavation of a cemetery in use between 1784 and 1905 in marseille, this commentary aims to decipher the questions of deontology and ethics raised by the archaeology of recent death Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Etude De Cas
  • Étude De Cas
Professionnels, Bénévoles, Amateurs Et Citoyens : Des Acteurs De La Recherche Pour Quels Apports

since the 1970s, archaeology has been very rapidly professionalized with the evolution of the french administration and the explosion of preventive archaeology positions. the benefits of this rapid evolution must now take into account the non-professional actors (volunteers, amateurs and citizens) whose diversity has also evolved. indeed, the distance taken by professionals towards the latter is increasing a little more every day. yet, for a long time, learned societies and associations have fuelled scientific production. some have even led to the creation of research centres, sometimes associated with the creation of a museum. these large-scale initiatives from legal entities may also be found in the case of individuals. to very different degrees, many other volunteer archaeologists, sometimes defining themselves as independent researchers, have contributed to knowledge about human beings through an archaeological approach. some have even become professionals. through the presentation of the contributions and limitations of the various non-professional research actors (in particular volunteer archaeologists and amateur researchers), we highlight the importance of strengthening the link between professionals and non-professionals for tomorrow’s archaeological research in mode science 4.0 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Creation
  • Archaeological Research
  • Learned Societies
  • Professional Research
  • Research Centres
L'étude Des Données "Grises" Issues De La Détection Illégale De Métaux : Sauvegarde Du Patrimoine Ou Cercle Vicieux Du Pillage

the practice of metal detection has developed considerably over the past forty years. taking into account the risk that it posed to the archaeological heritage, public authorities, following international recommendations, have put implemented legislation to try to reduce its impact. some nations such as england and wales, and recently belgium, nevertheless consider users of metal detectors more as research assistants than as a real risk to the archaeological heritage and encourage them to report their findings to the competent authorities. in addition, discoverers of exceptional objects can be rewarded financially. in france, where legislation requires administrative authorization to use a metal detector, declaratory systems are models for the detector user community who have dreamed of “active collaboration” between themselves and archaeologists. some scientists, arguing that illegal detection is a reality that cannot be combated, nevertheless choose to record and study the discoveries of clandestine users of metal detectors, seeing in this the possibility of “saving what can be saved”. however, various examples from current events and the media show that, far from its original purpose, this practice provides a scientific validation for the detection of metals and a market value for the objects discovered, thus creating a demand for the looting of heritage sites Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Archaeological Heritage
  • Metal Detectors
  • Market Value
  • Scientific Validation
Les Restes Humains Archéologiques En France : Entre Objets De Science Et Sujets De Droit

over the past 40 years, the increase in the number of archaeological excavations of large funeral complexes in france has led to a considerable increase in the number of human remains in the state’s excavation sites. these remains are not strictly speaking part of the archaeological material but are instead considered “scientific documentation”. on the one hand, the requirements of science necessitate the mobilization of all available techniques in order to better understand the populations that have left us these traces. on the other hand, material and cultural limitations necessarily lead to sampling techniques being seen as an efficient archaeological system. on the other hand, the mission of general interest that is archaeological research requires particular care be taken with these remains, sparing them from an overly managerial and short-term vision. the ethical virtues of archaeological excellence must not be forgotten; archaeological knowledge must be based on the requirement of scientific rigour. this primary requirement is questioned in particular by the choices made in the management of human remains collections. a second ethical requirement leads to questions about the legal or moral limits of the first. should scientific rigour be limited in certain cases, particularly when the research involves human remains? should remains be subject to a specific legal or ethical status that would distinguish them from other elements of archaeological material? this article addresses these questions through the prism of the study of the case of the perfectly preserved body of louise de quengo, a 17th century breton noble discovered in 2014 in rennes (france Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Remains
  • The Other
  • Archaeological Material
  • Scientific Rigour
  • Other Hand
Les Alternatives Locales Face À La Mondialisation : Réflexions Évaluant La Possibilité D’Une Archéologie Durable Et Les Contraintes Éthiques Professionnelles Surgissant Avec Ce Processus

this article analyses the ethical consequences for archaeology and archaeologists induced by the process of capitalist globalisation and the integration of archaeological heritage as a resource within the market economy. i propose a theoretical reflection on the current situation as well as on the questions and repositioning of the different actors in this process, based on my participation in the 2003 debate on the declaration of the quebrada de humahuaca (jujuy, argentina) as a world heritage site. finally, the alternative of sustainable archaeology is evaluated as a possible means of transformation for archaeology Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Market Economy
  • Current Situation
  • World Heritage Site
  • Theoretical Reflection
Réflexions Éthiques Relatives À L’Étude Du Proche-Orient Antique

assyriology covers disciplines that concern the study of the ancient near east, and more specifically the period and the geographic area defined by the use of cuneiform writing. archaeologists, historians and art historians who conduct research in this field work in countries at war or in countries that do not respect the universal declaration of human rights. they are confronted with situations that affect their daily work. to better understand these situations, it is essential to understand the recent history of these countries, the role played by western researchers in the rediscovery of antiquity, and the relationship of local politicians and populations to their past. in 2003, assyriologists created the international association for assyriology to better address the situation in the near east, and since 2014, they have reacted through official statements, before reflecting on the ethical behaviour of researchers. this concerns respect for the laws of the countries under study, cooperation with local scientists, the training of future generations and the well-being of the workforce employed on archaeological excavation sites. it concerns the means to be implemented for the safeguarding and restoration of cultural heritage, without cooperating with dictatorial regimes. finally, the ethical behaviour of the researcher depends on the transmission of knowledge to the public, and in particular information to potential buyers about the danger of contributing to the trafficking of antiquities Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Ethical Behaviour
  • Human Rights
  • Cultural Heritage
  • Ancient Near East
De La « Professionalisation » À La « Vassalisation ». L’Archéologue Entre « Éthique Professionnelle » Et « Responsabilité Sociale D’Entreprise

based on the observation of a loss of thickness in archaeological ethics – “ethical-washing” by which ethics is restricted to the production of records of archaeological data on the one hand, and to corporate social communication on the other – this article examines the evolution of the archaeological profession and its loss of subjective meaning. based on a concrete case of contract work experience in rescue archaeology in the united kingdom, and interviews with professionals in preventive archaeology in france, this article questions the influence on this dynamic of a managerial rhetoric linked to neocapitalism. it concludes by proposing for archaeology and archaeologists, some means to resist submission to the development imperatives of planners, discussed with the public at the “archaeo-ethics” conference Show More ... ... Show Less

  • United Kingdom
  • Social Communication
  • Work Experience
  • The Other
  • Concrete Case
Alésia : L’Instrumentalisation Actuelle D’Une Prétendue Controverse, Entre Mythe National Et Théorie Du Complot

the siege of alesia, a major episode of the gallic wars, in 52 bc saw the gallic coalition gathered around vercingetorix fail to repel the roman army led by caesar. there is a strong dichotomy between the important place that this episode plays in the construction of the french national myth and the brevity of the siege, with the few visible and intelligible archaeological traces left by this type of event for the general public. these aspects contributed to the debate in the 19th century on the location of alesia’s headquarters. this controversy emerged from the scientific field over the course of a century and a half of field research that had brought to light the remains of this episode in alise-sainte-reine. however, alternative locations of the site are still being defended and this pseudo-controversy continues to receive unexpected media coverage in view of the weakness of the arguments put forward. this raises questions about the ethical issues raised by such media presentations of archaeological subjects, when they submit a scientific question to commercial considerations. indeed, these theories seek to stick to the myth, in particular by matching a site to a preconceived idea. they also feed on the ingredients of a conspiracy theory: either by deduction, because if these locations lack evidence, it is because they are hidden by archaeologists; or as a starting point, out of mistrust of the scientific discourse referred to as “official history”. there is also an ethical question for the researcher about how to deal with these situations Show More ... ... Show Less

  • 19Th Century
  • General Public
  • Conspiracy Theory
  • Ethical Question
  • Starting Point
Les Recherches-Action Ou Collaboratives Sont-Elles Plus Éthiques? Réflexions D’Une Ethnologue En Milieu Autochtone Canadien

in canada, since the early 2000s, action and collaborative research have become increasingly popular in the social sciences. in this form of research, knowledge is produced not only by specialized researchers but also with actors in the field; it is often presented as a panacea for ethical research with local populations, especially when they are in a situation of marginalization. this research is in practice seen as a potential means of empowerment. based on my experience as an anthropologist working in quebec aboriginal communities, i examine how, when applied to non-prescriptive disciplines such as mine, these types of research can present different images. are they really more ethical than fundamental research? i highlight the questions raised by these models, which can change the way i practice my profession, paying particular attention to the commitment of the researcher, the validity and strength of methodologies and epistemologies, and the degrees of participation of informants, all within the framework of the ethical rules formulated by the canadian granting councils and by aboriginal people themselves Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Social Sciences
  • Collaborative Research
  • Research Knowledge
  • Aboriginal Communities
  • Local Populations
Le Délicat Problème Des Restes Humains En Archéologie

the problem i am interested in is above all that of the biomedical management of human remains in archaeology, these ancient artifacts “unlike any other”, these “atypical patients”. in the following text, i will examine, with an interdisciplinary perspective (anthropological, philosophical and medical), how it is possible to work on human remains in archaeology, but also how to manage their storage after study. working in archaeology is already a political problem (in the greek sense of the word, i.e., it literally involves the city), and one could refer directly to laurent olivier’s work on the politics of archaeological excavations during the third reich and the spread of nazi ideology based on excavation products and anthropological studies. but in addition, working on human remains can also pose political problems, and we paid the price in my team when we worked on robespierre’s death mask (the reconstruction of the face having created a real scandal on the part of the french far left) but also when we worked on henri iv’s head (its identification having considerably revived the historical clan quarrel between orléans and bourbon). working on human remains is therefore anything but insignificant Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Remains
  • Third Reich
  • The Third
  • Interdisciplinary Perspective
  • Archaeological Excavations