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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Due to the increasing ageing population, how can caregivers effectively provide long-term care services to meet the older adults’ needs with finite resources is emerging. In addressing this issue, nursing homes are striving to adopt smart health with the internet of things and artificial intelligence to improve the efficiency and sustainability of healthcare. This study proposed a two-echelon responsive health analytic model (EHAM) to deliver appropriate healthcare services in nursing homes under the Internet of Medical Things environment. A novel care plan revision index is developed using a dual fuzzy logic approach for multidimensional health assessments, followed by care plan modification using case-based reasoning. The findings reveal that EHAM can generate patient-centred long-term care solutions of high quality to maximise the satisfaction of nursing home residents and their families. Ultimately, sustainable healthcare services can be within the communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hui Liao ◽  
Chaoyang Yan ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Jing Wang

BackgroundThe disability problem has become prominent with the acceleration of the global aging process. Individual disability is associated with economic conditions and contributes to family poverty. As disability will change over a long period of time and may even show distinct dynamic trends, we aimed to focus on activities of daily living (ADL) and classify functional disability trends. Moreover, we aimed to highlight and analyze the association between functional disability trends and economic conditions and explore the influencing factors.Materials and MethodsA total of 11,222 individuals who were 45 years old or older were included in four surveys conducted by the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. Samples were analyzed after excluding those with missing key variables. The latent class growth model was used to classify the ADL trends. Two binary logistic regressions were established to observe the association between the ADL trends and follow-up economic conditions or catastrophic health expenditure trends.ResultsADL trends of older adults were classified into improving (25.4%), stabilizing (57.0%), and weakening ADL (17.6%). ADL trend was associated with follow-up poverty (p = 0.002) and catastrophic health expenditure trends (p < 0.001). Compared with the improving ADL trend, the stabilizing ADL may have a negative influence on individuals' economic conditions (OR = 1.175, 95%CI = 1.060–1.303). However, a stabilizing ADL trend was less likely to bring about catastrophic health expenditures (OR = 0.746, 95%CI = 0.678–0.820) compared with an improving ADL trend.ConclusionThe improvement of functional disability would make the medical expense burden heavier but would still be beneficial for the prevention of poverty. A significant association was found between socioeconomic factors and poverty. Preventing the older adults from developing disability and illness, improving the compensation level of medical insurance, and optimizing the long-term care insurance and the primary healthcare system can potentially contribute to the prevention of poverty. Meanwhile, focusing on people who are poor at early stages, women, middle-aged, low-educated, and in rural areas is important.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 213
Sabrina Cherubini ◽  
Mariagrazia Perilli ◽  
Anna Maria Azzini ◽  
Evelina Tacconelli ◽  
Laura Maccacaro ◽  

Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are important reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria which colonize patients transferred from the hospital, or they may emerge in the facility as a result of mutation or gene transfer. In the present study, we characterized, from a molecular point of view, 43 E. coli strains collected from residents of LTCFs in Northern Italy. The most common lineage found was ST131, followed by sporadic presence of ST12, ST69, ST48, ST95, ST410 and ST1193. All strains were incubators of several virulence factors, with iss, sat, iha and senB being found in 84%, 72%, 63% and 51% of E. coli, respectively. Thirty of the ST131 analyzed were of the O25b:H4 serotype and H30 subclone. The ST131 isolates were found to be mainly associated with IncF plasmids, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-27 and gyrA/parC/parE mutations. Metallo-β-lactamases were not found in ST131, whereas KPC-3 carbapenemase was found only in two ST131 and one ST1193. In conclusion, we confirmed the spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in E. coli ST131 isolated from colonized residents living inside LTCFs. The ST131 represents an incubator of fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and other antibiotic resistance genes in addition to different virulence factors.

He Chen ◽  
Jing Ning

Abstract Long-term care insurance (LTCI) is one of the important institutional responses to the growing care needs of the ageing population. Although previous studies have evaluated the impacts of LTCI on health care utilization and expenditure in developed countries, whether such impacts exist in developing countries is unknown. The Chinese government has initiated policy experimentation on LTCI to cope with the growing and unmet need for aged care. Employing a quasi-experiment design, this study aims to examine the policy treatment effect of LTCI on health care utilization and out-of-pocket health expenditure in China. The Propensity Score Matching with Difference-in-difference approach was used to analyse the data obtained from four waves of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Our findings indicated that, in the aspect of health care utilization, the introduction of LTCI significantly reduced the number of outpatient visits by 0.322 times (p<0.05), the number of hospitalizations by 0.158 times (p<0.01), and the length of inpatient stay during last year by 1.441 days (p<0.01). In the aspect of out-of-pocket health expenditure, we found that LTCI significantly reduced the inpatient out-of-pocket health expenditure during last year by 533.47 yuan (p<0.01), but it did not exhibit an impact on the outpatient out-of-pocket health expenditure during last year. LTCI also had a significantly negative impact on the total out-of-pocket health expenditure by 512.56 yuan. These results are stable in the robustness tests. Considering the evident policy treatment effect of LTCI on health care utilization and out-of-pocket health expenditure, the expansion of LTCI could help reduce the needs for health care services and contain the increases in out-of-pocket health care expenditure in China.

Valerie Wing Yu Wong ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  
Wan In Wei ◽  
Samuel Yeung Shan Wong ◽  
Kin On Kwok

Abstract Background Despite clear evidence of benefits in acute-care hospitals, controversy over the effectiveness of IPC measures for MDROs is perceptible and evidence-based practice has not been established. Objective To investigate the effects of IPC interventions on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Data sources Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to September 2020. Eligibility criteria Original and peer-reviewed articles examining the post-intervention effects on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Interventions (i) Horizontal interventions: administrative engagement, barrier precautions, education, environmental cleaning, hand hygiene, performance improvement, and source control; and (ii) vertical intervention: active surveillance plus decolonization. Study appraisal and synthesis We employed a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk ratios (pRRs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization by intervention duration; and conducted subgroup analyses on different intervention components. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tools. Results Of 3877 studies identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion (eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies reported outcomes associated with MRSA (15 studies), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) (four studies), Clostridium difficile (two studies), and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (two studies). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pRRs were close to unity regardless of intervention duration (long: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.60–1.10]; medium: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.25–2.68]; short: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.53–1.69]). Vertical interventions in studies with a small sample size showed significant reductions in MRSA colonization while horizontal interventions did not. All studies involving active administrative engagement reported reductions. The risk of bias was high in all but two studies. Conclusions Our meta-analysis did not show any beneficial effects from IPC interventions on MRSA reductions in LTCFs. Our findings highlight that the effectiveness of interventions in these facilities is likely conditional on resource availability—particularly decolonization and barrier precautions, due to their potential adverse events and uncertain effectiveness. Hence, administrative engagement is crucial for all effective IPC programmes. LTCFs should consider a pragmatic approach to reinforce standard precautions as routine practice and implement barrier precautions and decolonization to outbreak responses only.

Shereen Hussein ◽  
Ann-Marie Towers ◽  
Sinead Palmer ◽  
Nadia Brookes ◽  
Barbora Silarova ◽  

Background: Long-term care (LTC) workers are subjected to structural and inherent difficult conditions that are likely to impact their quality of life at work; however, no agreed scale measures it. This study aims to develop a scale to measure the work-related quality of life among LTC workers in England (CWRQoL). The study establishes the domains/sub-domains of CWRQoL, investigates the tool’s utility and collates information on existing supporting strategies for CWRQoL. Methods: We adopt a mixed-methods approach employing inductive/deductive processes at three stages: (1) a scoping review of the literature; (2) interviews and focus groups with frontline LTC workers, managers and LTC stakeholders; and (3) a content validity consensus survey. Results: CWRQoL is composed of seven domains (and 23 sub-domains). Additional domains to those in the literature include financial wellbeing, sufficient time for building relations, managing grief and emotions associated with client death and end of life care. Stakeholders identified several benefits and challenges related to the CWRQoL tool’s utility. COVID-19 significantly impacted LTC workers’ mental wellbeing and spillover between work and home. Conclusions: The study highlighted the complex nature of CWRQoL and provided a solid ground for developing and validating a CWRQoL scale.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Miranda B. Olson ◽  
Ellen M. McCreedy ◽  
Rosa R. Baier ◽  
Renée R. Shield ◽  
Esme E. Zediker ◽  

Abstract Background In pragmatic trials, on-site partners, rather than researchers, lead intervention delivery, which may result in implementation variation. There is a need to quantitatively measure this variation. Applying the Framework for Implementation Fidelity (FIF), we develop an approach for measuring variability in site-level implementation fidelity. This approach is then applied to measure site-level fidelity in a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial of Music & MemorySM (M&M), a personalized music intervention targeting agitated behaviors in residents living with dementia, in US nursing homes (NHs). Methods Intervention NHs (N = 27) implemented M&M using a standardized manual, utilizing provided staff trainings and iPods for participating residents. Quantitative implementation data, including iPod metadata (i.e., song title, duration, number of plays), were collected during baseline, 4-month, and 8-month site visits. Three researchers developed four FIF adherence dimension scores. For Details of Content, we independently reviewed the implementation manual and reached consensus on six core M&M components. Coverage was the total number of residents exposed to the music at each NH. Frequency was the percent of participating residents in each NH exposed to M&M at least weekly. Duration was the median minutes of music received per resident day exposed. Data elements were scaled and summed to generate dimension-level NH scores, which were then summed to create a Composite adherence score. NHs were grouped by tercile (low-, medium-, high-fidelity). Results The 27 NHs differed in size, resident composition, and publicly reported quality rating. The Composite score demonstrated significant variation across NHs, ranging from 4.0 to 12.0 [8.0, standard deviation (SD) 2.1]. Scaled dimension scores were significantly correlated with the Composite score. However, dimension scores were not highly correlated with each other; for example, the correlation of the Details of Content score with Coverage was τb = 0.11 (p = 0.59) and with Duration was τb = − 0.05 (p = 0.78). The Composite score correlated with CMS quality star rating and presence of an Alzheimer’s unit, suggesting face validity. Conclusions Guided by the FIF, we developed and used an approach to quantitatively measure overall site-level fidelity in a multi-site pragmatic trial. Future pragmatic trials, particularly in the long-term care environment, may benefit from this approach. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03821844. Registered on 30 January 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03821844.

2022 ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Jingpu Zhao ◽  
Xiangxiang Liu ◽  
Xiaohua Xie ◽  
Yulong Wang

Abstract Background: Aging crisis is proposing a huge challenge to the whole Chinese social welfare system, however a national Long-term Care (LTC) Instrument has not established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the content of six selected LTCs based on the linkage of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), so as to provide insights for the development of Chinese national LTC instrument in the future. Methods: Two trained health professionals performed the linkage according to the refined ICF linking rules. The main concepts included in the items of three international LTC instruments, namely Minimum Data Set 3.0 (MDS 3.0), Initial Assessment Instrument(IAI), and New Assessment Tool for Determining Dependency on Nursing Care (NBA), as well as three Chinese instruments, namely Disability Assessment of Long-Term Care (DA-LTC), Specification for Elderly Care Unified Need Assessment in Shanghai Version 2.0 (SEC-UNA 2.0), and pictorial-based Longshi Scale (LS) were selected and linked to the ICF categories. The six selected LTC instruments were analyzed and compared at the levels of ICF components, chapters, and categories. Results: The main concepts of 340 valid items of the six LTC instruments were linked to 112 different ICF categories. Within the ICF framework, the “Activities and Participation” component was most frequently addressed in the LTC instruments followed by the “Body functions” component, and the percentages were 0.52 and 0.38, respectively. At the ICF chapters level, “b1 mental functions,” “d4 mobility,” and “d5 self-care” were the core of the LTC instruments. In addition, the contents of the six selected LTC instruments differed greatly. Conclusions: The ICF provides a useful external reference for the analysis and comparison of different LTC instruments. The findings suggest that key elements to determine eligibility for LTC in China need to be further identified. It is anticipated that this study will provide new insights for the development of Chinese national LTC instruments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yuan Gao ◽  
Jingbo Li ◽  
Xin Yuan

Set in the rapid development of population aging, this study focuses on the relationship between health and medical expenditure of the elderly population. Taking the health and medical expenditure of the elderly as the research object, this study analyzes the characteristics and the intrinsic relationship between them. Based on the future elderly model, this study calculates the transition probability of the elderly's self-assessment health state using the Health Transition Model and estimates the medical expenditure of the elderly by the Two-Part Model. Based on the above, this study predicts the trend of the population size and medical expenditure of the elderly in the next 15 years (2020–2035). Based on the results, the policy suggestions are put forward. To begin with, strengthening health management and health services for the elderly in the construction of healthy China. Next, building a comprehensive system of health care for the elderly in government, society, family, and individual. Then, establishing a long-term care service system as soon as possible. In addition, it is better to establish lifelong health consciousness and cultivate healthy accomplishment behavior. Finally, it is necessary to promote gender mainstreaming in the health field.

И.А. Григорьева ◽  
Г.В. Колосова

Современное общество становится все более сложным, меняются не только технологии, но и его социально-возрастная структура. Человечество впервые столкнулось с ситуацией, когда пожилых больше, чем молодежи, и оказалось к этому не готово. Возникает новая задача - согласование взаимодействий и интересов множества субъектов социального взаимодействия в интересах пожилых. Традиционных управленческих воздействий государства становится недостаточно, постепенно складываются механизмы самоорганизации общества и автономности граждан. Новой проблемой стало не только быстрое старение общества, но и увеличение числа пожилых, требующих постоянного ухода в последние годы жизни. Уже сложившиеся «закрытые институты» - дома престарелых - сегодня все менее популярны у населения. В статье предложен обзор российского законодательства о долговременном уходе за пожилыми, а также анализ успехов и барьеров взаимодействия в организации ухода государства, коммерческих и некоммерческих учреждений в Санкт-Петербурге - городе пожилого населения и развитого социального обслуживания пожилых. Поэтому мы вправе сделать вывод, что социальное обслуживание в Петербурге может рассматриваться как перспективная модель развития долговременного ухода за пожилыми. Цель статьи - анализ особенности взаимодействий различных субъектов складывающейся в Петербурге системы долговременного ухода за пожилыми. Нас интересуют ситуации, когда имеющихся правовых норм/регулирования/вмешательства во взаимодействия достаточно, чтобы задачи ухода решались, а участники не страдали, и наоборот - когда имеющихся регулятивов недостаточно и либо задачи не решаются, либо потерпевшей стороной оказывается пожилой человек или его семья. Modern society is becoming more and more complex, not only technologies are changing, but also its socio-age structure. For the first time, mankind found itself in a situation where there are more elderly people than young people, and it turned out to be not ready for this. A new task arises - the coordination of interactions and interests of many subjects of social interaction in the interests of the elderly. The traditional administrative influences of the state are becoming insufficient; mechanisms of self-organization of society and the autonomy of citizens are gradually taking shape. A new problem has become not only the rapid aging of society, but also an increase in the number of elderly people requiring constant care in the last years of their lives, since the already existing «closed institutions». Nursing homes are less popular today. The article provides an overview of Russian legislation on long-term care for the elderly, as well as an analysis of the successes and barriers to interaction in organizing care for the state, commercial and non-profit institutions in St. Petersburg. Petersburg is a city of the elderly population and developed social services for the elderly. Therefore, we have the right to conclude that social services in St. Petersburg can be viewed as a promising model for the development of long-term care for the elderly. The purpose of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of interactions between various subjects of the system of long-term care for the elderly that is emerging in St. Petersburg. We are interested in situations when the existing legal norms/regulation/interference in interactions are sufficient for the tasks of care to be solved, and the participants did not suffer. And vice versa, when the existing regulations are insufficient, and either the tasks are not being solved, or the injured party is an elderly person or his family.

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