Older Adults
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Elizabeth Dao ◽  
Cindy K. Barha ◽  
Mij Santos ◽  
Madison Welch ◽  
Teresa Liu-Ambrose

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Chao-Yi Wu ◽  
Hiroko H. Dodge ◽  
Christina Reynolds ◽  
Lisa L. Barnes ◽  
Lisa C. Silbert ◽  

Background: Older adults spend a considerable amount of time inside their residences; however, most research investigates out-of-home mobility and its health correlates. We measured indoor mobility using room-to-room transitions, tested their psychometric properties, and correlated indoor mobility with cognitive and functional status.Materials and Methods: Community-dwelling older adults living alone (n = 139; age = 78.1 ± 8.6 years) from the Oregon Center for Aging & Technology (ORCATECH) and Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) were included in the study. Two indoor mobility features were developed using non-parametric parameters (frequency; stability): Indoor mobility frequency (room-to-room transitions/day) was detected using passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors fixed on the walls in four geographic locations (bathroom; bedroom; kitchen; living room) and using door contact sensors attached to the egress door in the entrance. Indoor mobility stability was estimated by variances of number of room-to-room transitions over a week. Test-retest reliability (Intra-class coefficient, ICC) and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) defined as the standard error of measurement (SEM) were generated. Generalized estimating equations models related mobility features with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and functional status (gait speed).Results: An average of 206 days (±127) of sensor data were analyzed per individual. Indoor mobility frequency and stability showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICCs = 0.91[0.88–0.94]; 0.59[0.48–0.70]). The MCIDs of mobility frequency and mobility stability were 18 and 0.09, respectively. On average, a higher indoor mobility frequency was associated with faster gait speed (β = 0.53, p = 0.04), suggesting an increase of 5.3 room-to-room transitions per day was associated with an increase of 10 cm/s gait speed. A decrease in mobility stability was associated with MCI (β = −0.04, p = 0.03).Discussion: Mobility frequency and stability in the home are clinically meaningful and reliable features. Pervasive-sensing systems deployed in homes can objectively reveal cognitive and functional status in older adults who live alone.

Simone Lanini ◽  
Stefania Capone ◽  
Andrea Antinori ◽  
Stefano Milleri ◽  
Emanuele Nicastri ◽  

Giada Viviani ◽  
Francesca De Luca ◽  
Gabriella Antonucci ◽  
Alla Yankouskaya ◽  
Anna Pecchinenda

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (5) ◽  
pp. 313-318
Minjoon Kim ◽  
Hironobu Kuruma ◽  
Chirathip Thawisuk

Many older adults experience a decline in shoulder function due to aging. This decline leads to limitations in daily activities and a lower quality of life. The incorporation of physical therapy interventions through elastic band exercises has demonstrated improved overall physical faculties among older adults. However, there is limited literature regarding the effect of these interventions on shoulder function in older adults. This scoping review summarized the current literature regarding elastic band exercises targeting shoulder function in older adults. A systematic literature search was performed using the Scopus and PubMed databases. An additional manual search was conducted using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). Articles were included if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal in 2017–2021. After assessing eligibility, five randomized controlled trials articles were included in the analysis. We discovered that two types of elastic interventions were applied to older adults: namely, the TheraBand and tube bands. We observed heterogeneity in participant characteristics among the studies (healthy older adults, older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and older adults with sarcopenic obesity). The duration of the exercise intervention ranged from 3 to 36 sessions. Only one study measured shoulder function as the primary outcome. Our findings suggest that elastic band exercises have been applied to older adults in various conditions and tended to be effective; however, evidence on this topic is insufficient.

Bik‐Kai Sia ◽  
Nai‐Peng Tey ◽  
Kim‐Leng Goh ◽  
Sor‐Tho Ng

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Konstantinos Prokopidis ◽  
Edward Chambers ◽  
Mary Ni Lochlainn ◽  
Oliver C. Witard

Aging is associated with a decline in skeletal muscle mass and function—termed sarcopenia—as mediated, in part, by muscle anabolic resistance. This metabolic phenomenon describes the impaired response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to the provision of dietary amino acids and practice of resistance-based exercise. Recent observations highlight the gut-muscle axis as a physiological target for combatting anabolic resistance and reducing risk of sarcopenia. Experimental studies, primarily conducted in animal models of aging, suggest a mechanistic link between the gut microbiota and muscle atrophy, mediated via the modulation of systemic amino acid availability and low-grade inflammation that are both physiological factors known to underpin anabolic resistance. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate the action of specific gut bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) to increase systemic amino acid availability and elicit an anti-inflammatory response in the intestinal lumen. Prospective lifestyle approaches that target the gut-muscle axis have recently been examined in the context of mitigating sarcopenia risk. These approaches include increasing dietary fiber intake that promotes the growth and development of gut bacteria, thus enhancing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Prebiotic/probiotic/symbiotic supplementation also generates SCFA and may mitigate low-grade inflammation in older adults via modulation of the gut microbiota. Preliminary evidence also highlights the role of exercise in increasing the production of SCFA. Accordingly, lifestyle approaches that combine diets rich in fiber and probiotic supplementation with exercise training may serve to produce SCFA and increase microbial diversity, and thus may target the gut-muscle axis in mitigating anabolic resistance in older adults. Future mechanistic studies are warranted to establish the direct physiological action of distinct gut microbiota phenotypes on amino acid utilization and the postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in older adults.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104365962110536
Liza Lai Shan Choi ◽  
Piera Jung ◽  
Marti Harder ◽  
Kelly Zhang

Introduction: Although an abundance of gerontological research has focused on subjective well-being, quality of life, and life satisfaction, we know little about what matters most to older adults in sub-cultural groups. The purpose of this study was to explore what matters to older Chinese adults. Methods: The study used a qualitative interpretive design, drawing influences from phenomenology and constructed meaning through participants’ lived experiences. Results: After data analysis, a core theme of cultural foundations and categorical themes emerged. This study emphasized the importance of hearing the voices of Chinese older adults and how they viewed well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction, and health care. Discussion: The findings of this study have added to the body of existing knowledge of what matters most to older adults. These insights may advance nursing as it pertains to culturally congruent health care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Irene Gagliardi ◽  
Sabrina Chiloiro ◽  
Maria Vallillo ◽  
Marta Bondanelli ◽  
Stefano Volpato ◽  

Abstract Background Improvement in acromegaly management increased disease survival and prevalence. Evidence regarding acromegaly in older adults are sparse. We aim to explore acromegaly impact on aging process quality. Methods Multicenter case-control study conducted on 42 older adults (≥ 65 years) acromegaly patients (ACRO) compared to an age- and gender-matched control group (CTR). Each participant underwent a multidimensional geriatric evaluation. Results Mean age in both groups was 73 ± 6 years and female gender was most represented (69%). All comorbidities were more frequent in ACRO than CTR. Thirteen ACRO were in remission and 29 had active disease controlled by medical therapy except for one patient. ACRO showed worse physical performance and mobility skills worsening with age as compared to CTR. ACRO performed poorly in functional status assessment, and age negatively correlated with instrumental and basic daily activities execution. Cognitive evaluation scores were significantly lower in ACRO vs. CTR, worsening with age. No difference was found concerning nutritional and psychological status. Musculoskeletal and bone diseases were more frequent in ACRO than in CTR (52% vs. 12%; 64% vs. 10%; P < 0.05) and independently associated with geriatric outcomes in ACRO. ACRO reported a less satisfactory quality of life concerning physical activity and pain, general health, vitality, social activities. Conclusions Our study demonstrates increased frailty of older acromegaly patients as compared to non-acromegaly patients with a consequent negative impact on their quality of life. Therefore, it seems advisable to include physical, functional, cognitive, nutritional, and psychological status assessments in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to identify the most appropriate geriatric tools.

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