Older Adults
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1003
Author(s):  
Jacques Taillard ◽  
Claude Gronfier ◽  
Stéphanie Bioulac ◽  
Pierre Philip ◽  
Patricia Sagaspe

In the context of geriatric research, a growing body of evidence links normal age-related changes in sleep with many adverse health outcomes, especially a decline in cognition in older adults. The most important sleep alterations that continue to worsen after 60 years involve sleep timing, (especially early wake time, phase advance), sleep maintenance (continuity of sleep interrupted by numerous awakenings) and reduced amount of sigma activity (during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep) associated with modifications of sleep spindle characteristics (density, amplitude, frequency) and spindle–Slow Wave coupling. After 60 years, there is a very clear gender-dependent deterioration in sleep. Even if there are degradations of sleep after 60 years, daytime wake level and especially daytime sleepiness is not modified with age. On the other hand, under sleep deprivation condition, older adults show smaller cognitive impairments than younger adults, suggesting an age-related lower vulnerability to extended wakefulness. These sleep and cognitive age-related modifications would be due to a reduced homeostatic drive and consequently a reduced sleep need, an attenuation of circadian drive (reduction of sleep forbidden zone in late afternoon and wake forbidden zone in early morning), a modification of the interaction of the circadian and homeostatic processes and/or an alteration of subcortical structures involved in generation of circadian and homeostatic drive, or connections to the cerebral cortex with age. The modifications and interactions of these two processes with age are still uncertain, and still require further investigation. The understanding of the respective contribution of circadian and homeostatic processes in the regulation of neurobehavioral function with aging present a challenge for improving health, management of cognitive decline and potential early chronobiological or sleep-wake interventions.


Author(s):  
Min Min Tan ◽  
Daniel D. Reidpath ◽  
Rachel Sing-Kiat Ting ◽  
Pascale Allotey ◽  
Tin Tin Su

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elizabeth A. Salerno ◽  
Neha P. Gothe ◽  
Jason Fanning ◽  
Lindsay L. Peterson ◽  
Graham A. Colditz ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Supervised physical activity interventions improve functional health during cancer survivorship, but remain costly and inaccessible for many. We previously reported on the benefits of a DVD-delivered physical activity program (FlexToBa™) in older adults. This is a secondary analysis of the intervention effects among cancer survivors in the original sample. Methods Low active, older adults who self-reported a history of cancer (N = 46; M time since diagnosis = 10.7 ± 9.4 years) participated in a 6-month, home-based physical activity intervention. Participants were randomized to either the DVD-delivered physical activity program focused on flexibility, toning, and balance (FlexToBa™; n = 22) or an attentional control condition (n = 24). Physical function was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) at baseline, end of intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline. Results Repeated measures linear mixed models indicated a significant group*time interaction for the SPPB total score (β = − 1.14, p = 0.048), driven by improved function from baseline to six months in the FlexToBa™ group. The intervention group also had improved balance (β = − 0.56, p = 0.041) compared with controls. Similar trends emerged for the SPPB total score during follow-up; the group*time interaction from 0 to 12 months approached significance (β = − 0.97, p = 0.089) and was significant from 0 to 24 months (β = − 1.84, p = 0.012). No significant interactions emerged for other outcomes (ps > 0.11). Conclusions A DVD-delivered physical activity intervention designed for cancer-free older adults was capable of eliciting and maintaining clinically meaningful functional improvements in a subgroup of cancer survivors, with similar effects to the original full sample. These findings inform the dissemination of evidence-based physical activity programs during survivorship. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT01030419. Registered 11 December 2009


Author(s):  
Michelle R. Zechner ◽  
Ellen Zambo Anderson ◽  
Kenneth J. Gill

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 83
Author(s):  
Anne Griffin ◽  
Sorcha McGarry ◽  
Caoimhe Moloney ◽  
Rose Galvin

Malnutrition has many associated physiological and psychological consequences for older adults that can result in reduced quality of life, poor disease outcomes and more frequent and longer hospital stays. Early recognition of malnutrition allows for timely intervention and treatment. There are several screening tools for nutrition risk. The most common one for malnutrition developed and validated for older adults is the short-form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). It can be completed in just a few minutes and applied in all health care settings. This systematic review and meta-analysis serves to synthesise the totality of evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of the MNA-SF tool compared with the full-form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-FF) in older adults for the diagnosis of malnutrition in healthcare settings. Systematic searches of five bibliographical databases will be performed and will include the Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science to identify all studies that validate the MNA-SF for malnutrition among older adults in healthcare settings. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Pre-specified MNA-SF scores will be used to identify patients’ risk of malnutrition. Using data from 2x2 tables, studies will be pooled to generate summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random effects model. The findings of this systematic review of diagnostic accuracy will provide evidence for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding the optimum use of the MNA-SF as a nutrition risk screening tool to identify malnutrition among older people. Registration details: Prospero registration number CRD42019131847


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0255534
Author(s):  
Sabuj Kanti Mistry ◽  
A. R. M. Mehrab Ali ◽  
Uday Narayan Yadav ◽  
Saruna Ghimire ◽  
Md. Belal Hossain ◽  
...  

Background Burgeoning burden of non-communicable disease among older adults is one of the emerging public health problems. In the COVID-19 pandemic, health services in low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh, have been disrupted. This may have posed challenges for older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in accessing essential health care services in the current pandemic. The present study aimed at exploring the challenges experienced by older Bangladeshi adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in receiving regular health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods The study followed a cross-sectional design and was conducted among 1032 Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above during October 2020 through telephone interviews. Self-reported information on nine non-communicable chronic conditions (osteoarthritis, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic kidney disease, cancer) was collected. Participants were asked if they faced any difficulties in accessing medicine and receiving routine medical care for their medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The association between non-communicable chronic conditions and accessing medication and health care was analysed using binary logic regression model. Results Most of the participants aged 60–69 years (77.8%), male (65.5%), married (81.4%), had no formal schooling (58.3%) and resided in rural areas (73.9%). Although more than half of the participants (58.9%) reported having a single condition, nearly one-quarter (22.9%) had multimorbidity. About a quarter of the participants reported difficulties accessing medicine (23%) and receiving routine medical care (27%) during the pandemic, and this was significantly higher among those suffering from multimorbidity. In the adjusted analyses, participants with at least one condition (AOR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.33–2.85) and with multimorbidity (AOR: 4.75, 95% CI: 3.17–7.10) had a higher likelihood of experiencing difficulties accessing medicine. Similarly, participants with at least one condition (AOR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.11–4.89) and with multimorbidity (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 4.03–9.05) were significantly more likely to face difficulties receiving routine medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions Our study found that a sizeable proportion of the older adults had difficulties in accessing medicine and receiving routine medical care during the pandemic. The study findings highlight the need to develop an appropriate health care delivery pathway and strategies to maintain essential health services during any emergencies and beyond. We also argue the need to prioritise the health of older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in the centre of any emergency response plan and policies of Bangladesh.


Author(s):  
Gina Voss ◽  
Andreia F. Paiva ◽  
Alice Delerue Matos

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is having major adverse consequences for the mental health of individuals worldwide. Alongside the direct impact of the virus on individuals, government responses to tackling its spread, such as quarantine, lockdown, and physical distancing measures, have been found to have a profound impact on mental health. This is manifested in an increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. As older adults are more vulnerable and severely affected by the pandemic, they may be at increased psychological risk when seeking to protect themselves from COVID-19. Methods: Our study aims to quantify the association between the stringency of measures and increased feelings of sadness/depression in a sample of 31,819 Europeans and Israelis aged 65 and above. We hypothesize that more stringent measures make it more likely that individuals will report increased feelings of sadness or depression. Conclusions: We found that more stringent measures across countries in Europe and Israel affect the mental health of older individuals. The prevalence of increased feelings of sadness/depression was higher in Southern European countries, where the measures were more stringent. We therefore recommend paying particular attention to the possible effects of pandemic control measures on the mental health of older people.


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