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2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 121472
Author(s):  
Yelena Kalyuzhnova ◽  
Dina Azhgaliyeva ◽  
Maksim Belitski

Marine Policy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 136 ◽  
pp. 104888
Author(s):  
Francisco Vergara-Solana ◽  
Daniel Peñalosa-Martinell ◽  
Daniel Skerritt ◽  
Annie Mejaes ◽  
German Ponce-Diaz ◽  
...  
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Luis Diego Soto Kiewit ◽  
Bianca Vienni Baptista

Purpose This paper aims to analyse innovation models and interdisciplinarity in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in Costa Rica between 2015 and 2021. The core focus is to evaluate the public policy in light of the groundwork that sustains the designed and proposed actions. Design/methodology/approach The authors applied a qualitative approach to build a set of dimensions and conducted content-analysis of selected documents. The analysis encompasses all current STI public policy documents in Costa Rica, including the planning instruments of the Central Government and the National Policy on STI. Findings The main findings show that STI policy in Costa Rica is based on different innovation models, but the projects and instruments themselves show the predominance of the reductionist model. Innovation receives a residual role. In turn, interdisciplinarity is based on the concept of convergence, which limits disciplinary collaboration to the natural, physical and engineering sciences, minimising contributions from other fields of knowledge to an instrumental role in innovation processes. Practical implications The authors conclude that the interlinkage between open innovation models, the participation of diverse societal actors and the inclusion of an interdisciplinary perspective leads to inclusive and more democratic public policy, allowing more sectors and organisations to benefit from innovation processes. This would imply a greater reach and impact of the policy, conditions that translate into innovation achievements and a better return on public investment. Originality/value This paper contributes to current discussions on STI policy by studying the implications of the link among policies, innovation models and interdisciplinarity.


MEST Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 82-88
Author(s):  
Chanmi Yu ◽  
Walter Block

Large modern shopping malls are replacing smaller, traditional groceries in the Republic of Korea. The present paper analyzes this phenomenon and recommends a laissez-faire public policy response. Alterations in selling format to consumers are only the tip of the iceberg in terms of changes in the economy. They are always occurring, at least in healthy economies, and, always, roadblocks are placed in their way. For example, Wal-Mart is prohibited from opening stores in a few communities. Uber and Lyft have been met with great hostility from established taxicab services. Economists even offer a generic term for this phenomenon: restrictions on entry. The present paper is a case study of this occurrence. It focuses on the Republic of Korea, and mainly considers grocery stores. But this small story is emblematic of what takes place in numerous countries all around the world, and many industries. We recommend a laissez-faire public policy approach to this phenomenon. If the new ways of doing things do not violate anyone’s rights, now laws should be passed interfering with the new ways of engaging in commerce. But is this not unfair to the people engaged in the old industries that are withering away? Not a bit of it. The horse and buggy industry, for example, was populated by entrepreneurs who earned a good living before the advent of the horseless carriage. Why should they be guaranteed profits when their offerings are no longer accepted by the public? And the same applies to automobile manufacturers, should their products ever be supplanted by even better means of transportation.


Author(s):  
Nusrat Jahan Arefin ◽  

Education is one of the essential components in developing a scholarly society capable of facing the demands and challenges of the twenty-first century. Education policy refers to the principles of government policymaking in the educational sector and the set of laws and norms that govern the operation of the educational system. It focuses on the effects of educational policy decisions and alternatives in the real world. It investigates the link between educational policy and practice. Even though our educational system has shortcomings, we are improving daily. Bangladesh is fully committed to the EFA goals, the Millennium Development Goals, and universal declarations. Every child between the ages of six and eighteen is entitled to free education under Article seventeen of the Bangladesh Constitution. As a result, the "National Education Policy 2010" was created using the incremental model of one of the most used public policy frameworks. The government makes incremental public policy decisions based on earlier actions. All of the model's functions are divided into distinct groups. Our educational system underwent significant changes over a long period. The incremental model's important aspects are time progression and social demand.


2022 ◽  
pp. 027614672110735
Author(s):  
Stanley J. Shapiro

Though flattered by the invitation to comment on Laczniak and Shultz's seminal piece, the author did not feel qualified to evaluate either the specifics of the arguments advanced or the conclusions reached. What they said was essentially accepted as a given though the case was made for an accompanying, more reader friendly version of their material. That being so, and after some minor editorial observations are made, much of the remainder of this Commentary focuses on two related issues that seemed especially relevant:(1) Socially Responsible Marketing's role, along with that of Socially Responsible Consumption and Socially Responsible Public policy, both in and of themselves and within a micromarketing Utopia and (2) the fact that after years of relative neglect the concept of macromarketing management seems finally on its way to being resurrected. Four examples of how the complexities of Socially Responsible Marketing could be highlighted using a controversies approach are then presented.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Momina Khan ◽  
Katie MacEntee ◽  
Reuben Kiptui ◽  
Amy Berkum ◽  
Abe Oudshoorn ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction: UNICEF estimates that there are as many as 100 million street-involved youth (SIY) globally. Marginalized conditions put SIY at higher risk of HIV and adverse outcomes once HIV-positive. The objective of this analysis was to describe barriers and facilitators of accessing HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services as Phase I of an implementation study evaluating the use of Peer Navigators to increase access to HIV services.Methods: Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and Theatre Testing were conducted with individuals who identify as SIY, health care providers, and community stakeholders living in Canada (Toronto, Montreal, London) and Kenya (Eldoret, Huruma, Kitale). Data were analyzed using a directed content approach, guided by the socio-ecological model (SEM).Results: Across the six sites were 195 participants: 64 SIY, 42 healthcare providers, and 97 community-based stakeholders. Barriers were identified at the societal (e.g. intersectional stigma and discrimination), public policy (e.g., inadequate access to basic needs, legal documentation, lack of health insurance, and limited community-based funding), institutional (e.g. lack of inclusive education and training, inadequate HIV educational outreach, and restrictive service provision), interpersonal (e.g., ineffective communication from healthcare providers), and intrapersonal levels (e.g. lack of trust and associated fear, low perception for healthcare, and lack of self-esteem). These contributed to limited HIV services utilization among SIY. Conversely, numerous facilitators were also identified at the public policy (e.g. affordable HIV services and treatment), institutional (e.g. available and accessible HIV prevention tools, HIV education and awareness programs, and holistic models of care), interpersonal level (e.g., systems navigation support, peer support, and personal relationships), and intrapersonal levels (e.g. self-efficacy) as positively supporting SIY access to HIV services.Conclusions: Intersectional stigma was a critical barrier in all sites, and policies and programs that foster welcoming environments for youth from diverse backgrounds and living circumstances may be better able to respond to the HIV service needs of this high risk population. Social support and navigation services were reported to facilitate access to HIV services in all sites.


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